There are two different types of historic bridges: One that stands out in terms of its design and history and one that integrates itself in a setting, where if visited, one can experience the culture that both the bridge and the area surrounding it offer. One cannot modernize with a new crossing without understanding the implications they have with the neighborhood or landscape. And this is where this guest column comes about.
I happened to stumble across this column by accident and wished I hadn’t for I have yet to visit Italy and explore some of the finest bridges in the country. Italy is home to thousands of crossings dating as far back as the Roman Empire. This include some of the bridges that were built before and rebuilt after the fall of the Empire, including some by King Theoderich (see my article on this topic), such as the aqueducts in Rome (as described in another article here.) Then there are the bridges serving the waters of Florence……
….and this city, Venice.
Home to over 2.5 million inhabitants (with 260,000 living directly in the city center), the city is home to over 430 bridges, including two of the most famous landmarks of the city: The Ponte di Rialto and the Bridge of Sighs. Both of these bridges, dating back to the late 1500s, are part of the majority that can be easily reached by boat or gondola. A guide to the highly recommended bridges to visit in Venice can be accessed by link here.
Yet this guest column written by a columnist who focuses on life in cities and sunsets, puts together Venice’s historic bridges with the colorful faces that the city has to offer. It is a long column about her adventures through the city, and her impressions lead to readers like this one to add this city to the places to visit and bridgehunt- very high up in the Top 3. To look at Venice’s bridges, have a look at the summary below and click to read to the end. When done, you will not regret it like I didn’t but more like provide an incentive to go there and have a look. Enjoy! 🙂
The city of bridges, as it is fondly known, is everything you would imagine it to be. It has a surreal feeling when there, living up to all of its stereotypical features; pretty bridges over winding canals, narrow paths nestled between old tall brick buildings, gondolas and motor boats carrying fruit and vegetables, singing gondoliers […]
Before announcing the winners, the author would like to apologize for the delay of the announcement of the winners. The reasons were twofold: 1. While returning home to Germany after spending Christmas with family in the US, he and his family were sick thanks to the flu bug that swept through many parts of the country. Many voters also requested a grace period for that reason plus more time needed to decide on their candidates. 2. In many categories, we had at least three ties for first place resulting in the need to extend the deadline. For that, the extension served as a blessing for many.
Now for the moment of truth. For the first time, the Chronicles, in connection with Forum Communications in Fargo, used the Poll Daddy voting scheme, which turned out to be the most effective way to vote. Thanks to Kari Lucin for her help, it will be used again for the 2015 Awards, which will take place in December. More information under the Ammann Awards page.
The votes were tallied with the top three being announced here. However, a link with the complete list of candidates for the 2014 Awards can be found here.
Without further ado, the winners:
Located over the Raccoon River in Des Moines, the Green Bridge has been in the news for over a year because of a public-private project to remodel the structure. It has been mentioned for many awards and grants. This photo by Mitch Nicholson, who is the author of Abandoned Iowa (website can be found here), will add to the accolades the bridge has already received, with the hope of garnering more support and funding for restoring the bridge by 2017. The Green Bridge won the award by collecting 31 votes (or 41%), beating out the Split Rock Bridge in Pipestone County (15 votes or 20%) and a drone photo of the BB Comer Bridge in Alabama (7 votes or 9%)
1. Green Bridge in Des Moines, Iowa (by Mitch Nicholson) 31 votes (41%)
2. Split Rock Bridge near Pipestone, Minnesota (by Sebastian Renfield) 15 votes (20%)
3. BB Comer Bridge in Jackson County, Alabama (by David Kammerer) 7 votes (9%)
Mark Watson, an engineer based in Scotland, is an expert in bridges in his region and found some unique angles of two of the bridges for this awards- the Firth of Forth Railroad Bridge and the Forth Roadway Bridge. The former is slated to become a UNESCO World Hertiage Site this year, while the latter turned 50 last year. Both bridges won gold and silver respectively, with the latter sharing the silver metal with a photo of another unique bridge in neighboring England, the Clifton Suspension Bridge (taken by Laura Hilton). Here are the final results:
T3. Monks Bridge at Isle of Man (Liz Boakes) and Millau Viaduct in France (Jet Lowe)- 2 votes (11%)
This year’s category features five candidates as well as three post humus, the latter of which will be featured in separate articles coming out in the Chronicles. Two of the candidates come from Generation X (born between 1970- 1985) but have vast experience with developing their database on historic bridges in the United States- namely, James Baughn of Bridgehunter.com and Nathan Holth of HistoricBridges.org. Yet experience always trumps youth, as seen with the winner of this award, Jet Lowe. For over 30 years, Mr. Lowe has been the eye of bridge photography for the National Park Service (and more so with the Historic American Engineering Record), photographing bridges big and small. Because of his expertise, this year’s Lifetime Achievement goes to him. The Chronciles has contacted him for a 1 to 1 interview and will post the results soon, once it is finished.
1. Jet Lowe 10
2. James Baughn 6
3. Nathan Holth 5
4. Nels Raynor 3
This category had perhaps the highest number of entries but the lowest number of votes. Nevertheless, the winners were found in both the USA and International subcategories. For the USA, the Fink Truss Bridge in San Antonio, the work of a German local, barely got the prize, beating out the Saylorville Bridges in Iowa and the Silent Shade Bridge in Mississippi by only one vote, as well as an abandoned truss bridge in Minnesota by two. In the International part, Theoderich the Great received his Lifetime Legacy Award post humus, albeit 1500 years late, as his Rome aqueducts shared first place with a bowstring arch bridge in Japan, whereas the Ravenna aqueducts finished second. Despite the plea for more information on the age of the structure, the Drew Bridge, originally from Brazil but now residing in Florida, finished third.
1. Fink Truss Bridge in Texas (40%)
T2. Saylorville Lake Bridges (20%)
Silent Shade Bridge
3. Queenpost Bridge in Jackson Co., MN (17%)
T 1. Aqueducts of Rome and Bowstring Arch Bridge in Japan (38%)
If one ties this article in with the Mystery Bridge article about the aqueduct in Ravenna, Italy, then one should consider this part II in the search for information and answers to the role of Theoderich the Great in restoring the architecture and infrastructure during his regime. As mentioned briefly in the article about the Ravenna Aqueduct, the Ostrogoth leader defeated and later murdered Odoacre in 493 to become the second king of Italy. His predecessor had established the Italian kingdom after dethroning the last emperor of the Western Roman Empire, Romulus Augustus, son of Orestes, in 476 and held power until his death, but not before having a tumultuous last four years through war with the Ostrogoth. Theoderich ruled until his death in 526, and left a legacy that is disputable in the books. Architecturally, he spearheaded the construction of basilicas and other monuments- mostly in Ravenna, but also in other cities, like Rome and Verona.
Yet, as we saw in the article about Ravenna, he also led efforts to restoring the infrastructure- in particular, aqueducts. The question is: apart from the Ravenna aqueduct, what other aqueducts did he build?
Let’s look at the ones in Rome, for instance. Situated on the Tiber River, the present-day Italian capital once had a central network of aqueducts, which channeled water into and around the walled city from the Mediterranean Sea. 11 of them totaling over 320 kilometers were constructed between 312 BC with the Aqua Appia and 226 AD with the Aqua Alexandrina (as shown in the picture above). Restoration of the viaducts started in the third century AD to improve the flow of water into Rome, but was interrupted with the invasion of the Germanic Tribes beginning in the 4th Century, at the time of the partition of the Roman Empire into East and West in 395. As they did throughout the region, the invaders destroyed the aqueducts and other forms of infrastructure until the Western Empire ceased to exist in 476.
Restoration did not start again until Theoderich the Great took power. Like in the times before 476, the infrastructure was the responsibility of the local governments and private residents, for the Italian kingdom was in a transition phase and did not have enough money available to reestablish itself and its institutions. Theoderich was very conservative in his plans to rebuild the infrastructure and chose the most important areas first for development: namely, Ravenna and Rome, but also in Verona and other smaller cities. While Ravenna was very important for him, and it was important to supply clean water to a city surrounded by marshland, his focus was also on restoring the aqueducts in Rome. While he had provided support to the local government to rebuild the aqueducts, he hastened the process in ca. 509 due to political corruption and other delays.
Many sources, written between 1980 and 1995 have not mentioned much about which aqueducts were restored during Theoderich’s era, and some even credited Belisarius for restoring key aqueducts after he captured Rome in 538, 12 years after Theoderich’s death. This was part of the plan of East Roman emperor Justinian to drive the Ostrogoths away from Italy and recapture parts of the lost land of the Roman Empire. Yet more information has come to light as to how the Ostrogoth restored the aqueducts during his 33-year reign over Italy, and therefore, as part of the project on the restoration of the infrastructure in Italy during Theoderich’s regime, the question is:
Which aqueducts in Rome were restored during Theoderich’s regime and who engineered these restoration efforts?
What other forms of infrastructure (not just aqueducts but also roads, bridges and canals) did Theoderich oversee in restoring for reuse for the population living in Italy?
Place your comments here or send the info via e-mail to the Chronicles at email@example.com.Other contact info can be found in the article on Ravenna’s aqueduct, where some information is being sough about this one as well. You can click hereto view the article. Any articles and leads on the infrastructure in Rome and Italy during Theoderich’s regime will be most helpful in completing this project.