Raymond and Campbell- Council Bluffs, Iowa

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Moscow Mills Bridge Photo taken by James Baughn in 2008

 

Another bridge builder worth mentioning and listing in the Bridge Builder’s Directory is a company based in Council Bluffs, Iowa named Raymond and Campbell. While only one bridge example remains which is credited to the name of the firm, multiple newspaper sources claimed that dozens of bridges were built  by this company during the last two decades of the 19th century, with more claimed to have been built by the company’s primary agent, George C. Wise, who later established his own business with his brothers. This included the bridges in Jackson County, Minnesota, one of the bridge builders’ primary customers. According to research done by the author for a bridge book on this topic, from 1883 until 1907, between 10 and 17 bridges were credited to the company’s name and to that of George C. Wise. This includes all but four crossings along the West Branch of the Des Moines river as well as those along the Little Sioux River. By 1955, all of them were replaced with current structures.

Yet the question we still have is what other counties and states did Raymond and Campbell do business with and how many bridges were built?  Before opening the question for forum and adding some examples to this article, let’s have a look at the history of the company and its primary agent, George C. Wise:

Little has been written about the company partly because there are only a few records of its existence.  However, the company was unique for the founders originated from the northern third of North America and migrated to Iowa to make their living there. E.W. Raymond (1842-?) originated from Lockport, NY and made his way down through Illinois, before settling in Council Bluffs in 1868. Charles Edward Henry Campbell (1850-1902) was a Canadian from Prince Edward Island, who immigrated to the US in 1867, eventually settling down in Omaha, located across the Missouri River from Council Bluffs. Together, the gentlemen founded the bridge building company in September 1874. It is unknown how long the company stayed in business, except the fact that Raymond and Campbell, during the 1880s, had employed about 50 workers and made over $200,000 worth of business.[1]  Apart from Mr. Wise, Raymond and Campbell did have an agent for a short time, who would later reach his fame in bridge building through constructing magnificent bridges and patenting his own truss bridge design. That gentleman was John Alexander Low Waddell, and much of his work still exists today. (Click on this link to see his profile)

As for the company’s primary agent,  George C. Wise, Raymond and Campbell hired him in 1875 as an agent for the upper Midwest. Born in Huntingdon County, PA in 1851, Mr. Wise served in the Army for five years, was involved in many military conflicts with Native Americans in Nebraska and Wyoming, as well as serving as an escort for the peace commissioners in brokering a truce with Sitting Bull and his Northern Sioux tribe in the Black Hills in July and August of 1875. Shortly after the peace agreement was signed, he was honourably discharged from the Army and emigrated to Council Bluffs, Iowa, where he worked for Raymond and Campbell. According to the Pottawattamie County history books, Mr. Wise worked there until he established his own bridge building accounts and worked independently in 1883. He oversaw the construction of crossings in Minnesota and other places and even had his brothers join the business, some of whom continued the business after he retired from the business in 1907. George spent the rest of his life involved in public affairs in Council Bluffs until his death in 1916.

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Moscow Mills Bridge. Photo taken by James Baughn in 2016

The only known bridge that is still standing today is the Moscow Mills Bridge. Built by Raymond and Campbell in 1885, this Pratt through truss bridge with a three-layered combination of Town Lattice and X-frame portal bracings and pinned connections has a length of 214 feet (the main span is 177 feet). Closed for over a decade, the bridge is sitting idle with overgrowth covering the portal bracings and part of the top chord. Yet plans are in the making to convert this bridge into a recreational crossing in the future, as county officials would like to utilize the bridge as part of a city park. Before doing that though, the bridge will need to be rehabilitated and a new deck. This bridge is located over the Cuivre River on the east end of Moscow Mills in Lincoln County, Missouri.

 

Other examples of bridges built by Raymond and Campbell but no longer exist include the following (this is an ongoing list as more examples will be added here.)

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North Bridge in Jackson, MN  Photo courtesy of the Jackson County Historical Society

State Street (a.k.a. North) Bridge in Jackson, MN:  Spanning the West Fork Des Moines River at State Street and Ashley Park, this bridge has had its own history which could easily be written into a booklet and sold at the County Historical Society. The bridge was unique because it was the first structure built over the river in Jackson. It was rebuilt seven times over the course of 150 years, counting the current structure. Three of which were credited to Raymond and Campbell and especially to George C. Wise, who was the county’s primary provider of bridges. The first structure was built during the winter of 1866/67,  using oak pile and hewn wood courtesy of Welch Ashley. It lasted only a couple months as it was destroyed in an ice jam. It was rebuilt later that year and lasted 12 years until a contract was awarded to Raymond and Campbell to build a new structure in 1879. The iron structure measured 194 feet and had a width of 22 feet. It survived less than two years as flooding and an ice jam took out the structure in March 1881. It was one of several bridges along the river that was destroyed that spring. The county contacted Wise again for a fourth structure, which was built later that summer. The structure only lasted 15 years and Wise was asked to build a stronger structure in 1896, which upon its completion, featured a Pratt through truss with M-frame portal bracings and pinned connections. The bridge was a permanent fix, providing access to the east and north of Jackson for 58 years. The bridge used to carry two primary highways (US 71 and 16) until it was realigned through a new crossing at the junction of Springfield Parkway and Third Street (near the now demolished St. Wenceslaus Catholic Church) in 1924. That bridge eventually was relocated to the site of the last Wise structure in 1955, after city officials revealed that the bridge was no longer able to carry traffic because of structural issues. The North Bridge was the site of many accidents and stories involving floods and ice jams, yet inspite of its checkered history, it was only one of a few rare stories of bridges built either by Raymond and Campbell, George C. Wise or both. This one clearly belongs to the third category, especially as Wise continued to have Jackson County as its primary customer until his retirement in 1907.

 

 

 

Source page:

[1] Waddell, Dr. John Alexander Low and John Lyle Harrington. “The Principal Professional Papers of Dr. J.A.L. Waddell” unpublished manscript. Downloaded from Google Books Online 10 November, 2008; Keatley, John H. “The History of Pottawattamie County, Iowa.” Council Bluffs, IA, 1883, p. 50  Downloaded from Google Books Online 10 November, 2008. Stewart, James: E-mail correspondence, 10 November, 2008,  Roenfeld, Ryan of the Pottawattamie County Historical Society: E-mail correspondence 29 October, 2008.

[2] Roenfeld, Ryan of the Pottawattamie County Historical Society: E-mail correspondence 29 October, 2008; Stewart, James: E-mail correspondence, 10 November, 2008; George C. Wise obituary Pottawattamie County Genealogy. Obtained on 3 November, 2008.

 

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New Goethals Bridge Going Up; Old Goethals Bridge Coming Down

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Source: By The original uploader was Decumanus at English Wikipedia [GFDL (http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html) or CC-BY-SA-3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/)%5D, via Wikimedia Commons
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NEW YORK CITY-  Since 2014, the bridge landscape has been changing in front of our eyes, especially with regards to the metropolitan’s freeways. Once laden with suspension bridges, such as the Brooklyn, Manhattan and Verrazano Narrows, as well as cantilever truss bridges, such as the Queensboro and Commodore Perry, and arch bridges, such as the Bayonne and Triborough Bridges, a new type of bridge is painting the landscape: the cable-stayed suspension bridge. Three bridges of this kind are taking shape, replacing their predecessors, made of steel but at an average age of 75 years, have reached their end of their useful lives and therefore, will be retired and taken down. Already the Kosciuszko Bridge, spanning Newtown Creek betwee Brooklyn and Queens has opened to traffic, replacing a through truss bridge that had previously occupied its place for almost 80 years. The truss bridge is scheduled to be lowered to the creek and dismantled this summer.  The twin tower spans of the Tappan Zee Bridge are taking shape. The 62-year old cantilever through truss structure is scheduled to be demolished this fall in place of the westbound bridge, with the spans to be finished by 2019.

 

The same applies to this bridge, the Goethals Bridge, spanning the Arthur Kill at the New York/ New Jersey border.

 

Built by J.A. L. Waddell, who had already made a name for himself with his patented subdivided kingpost through truss bridge and building major structures in cities, like Kansas City, Chicago and New York, the 1928 structure feature a cantilever Warren through truss bridge, with riveted connections and an X-frame portal bracing. The span is 768 feet long, but combining the deck truss approach spans, the total length is 7110 feet. However, at a deck width of 62 feet,  the bridge was too narrow to accomodate through traffic, especially as it had carried Interstate 278 traffic since 1961. Despite integrating it into the freeway system, highway officials concluded that because of countless bottleneck traffic, combined with the age of the structure, the Goethals Bridge could no longer accomodate the increasing traffic and therefore needed to be replaced.

 

Construction started on the twin-towered cable-stayed suspension bridge in 2014 and since this past Friday, the eastbound span has opened to traffic. Currently, four lanes of traffic- two in each direction- are using that bridge while the westbound span is being built. When completed next year, a total of eight lanes will be using the duo-span, thus making the connection between New Jersey and Staten Island more efficient and stress free, especially when people need to commute to New York everyday and spend a weekend at Long Island.

 

And as for the Goethals Bridge, it will become a faded memory by the time the duo-spans open, being placed in the history books as the bridge that was a pioneer of commuter traffic that serves the metropolitan area but has now deserved a grand retirement after almost 90 years in service.

 

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Demolition crews are working to remove the old structure even as this article is being posted through a series of controlled implosions and dismantling the cantilever span into chunks, to be shipped to the recycling center for reuse. The project is scheduled to be finished by latest, 2019, which includes removing the old span and accomodating bike and pedestrian traffic- a luxury that was not available with the old bridge.

If you want to see what both bridges look like, have a look at the videos below. The first one is of the original Goethals Bridge before construction began. The second is of the newly opened eastbound bridge.

 

 

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Mystery Bridge Nr. 59: An Undiscovered Waddell Truss

Photos courtesy of MnDOT
Photos courtesy of MnDOT

History sometimes has its doubts, especially when it comes to historic bridge inventories conducted by state and national governments. According to sources by the Minnesota Historic Society and the Minnesota Department of Transportation, there was supposed to be one kingpost truss bridge remaining in the state- the one located at Schoneman Park, south of Interstate 90 on US Hwy. 75 in Luverne, in Rock County (click here to view the photos).

But did you know that there is ANOTHER kingpost truss bridge, a design similar to the Schoneman Park Bridge in Clearwater County?  According to a discovery made by the Inspection Unit of MnDOT recently, there is.  The bridge is located over the Clearwater River, ten miles west of the Bagley Lake State Preserve and six miles east of nearby Gronvich, and features Waddell pony truss, with welded connections and a 10° angled outer wing on each side. The truss design was patented by J.A.L. Waddell but there are only a handful of these trusses left, including two through trusses (one in Kansas and one in Louisiana) and now two in Minnesota. The bridge is 37 feet long, and even though there was no date on the construction of the bridge, it is possible that the bridge was built between 1905 and 1910, possibly by the Hewett family. The reason: The bridge is nearly identical to the one in Luverne with only a few minor exceptions. This includes the length difference as well as the riveted connections on the top portion of the one at Schoneman.

The bridge has been bypassed by a new crossing, but it is now privately owned, an example of a farmowner’s willingness to keep a piece of history for private use. Despite this success, some more information is needed as to when it was exactly built and by whom. While the information in the bridgehunter.com website, it is based on the national bridge inventory page, and more research is needed to determine whether the construction date is correct. Furthermore, it is unknown whether Hewett built this or if another bridge company contributed to the work.

If you know more about this bridge (a.k.a. Bridge L 1297), please contact Jason Smith at the Chronicles, using the contact details below. The information will be updated in the bridgehunter.com website along with photos you wish to contribute. Some photos can be found here as well as in the website as well.  Best of luck in finding some information and stories pertaining to this bridge. 🙂

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Many thanks to Pete Wilson at MnDOT for the discovery and the information/ photos.

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Book of the Month: The Colorado Street Bridge in Pasedena, California

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Lampposts of the Colorado Street Bridge in Pasadena. Photos courtesy of Tavo Olmos

Pasadena, California: with 138,540 inhabitants and a suburb of Los Angeles, the city is loaded with glamor and glitter, as the rich and famous make their homes there. Streets are lined with tall palm trees and loaded with cars. And there are famous landmarks that make the city the place to see, like the Pasadena Playhouse, the Ambassador Auditorium, Bungalow Heaven, the Rose Bowl (and the site of the Tournament of Roses Parade that takes place on New Year’s Day), and of course, the Colorado Street High Bridge.
While I have yet to see the bridge, along with the other structures in the City of Angels, I was approached by the publisher about doing a review of a book written by author Tavo Olmos on this particular bridge. Looking at the copy received by the folks at Pasadena, I am pleased to inform you that the wish is granted. This part will look at the book, while the next part will feature the interview by the author himself.
The Colorado Street Bridge was one of the most important works of Dr. John Alexander Low Waddell of the Kansas City-based bridge building firm Waddell and Harrington.  Before its completion in 1913, Waddell had already garner numerous accolades both in the United States as well as Europe and Asia, due to numerous bridges built during his 20-year career, plus numerous bridge design patents, like the Waddell truss, a subdivided form of the Kingpost truss bridge where there are only two of the through truss type and over a dozen pony truss types left in the country.  Waddell designed the arch bridge to make it aesthetically appealing to the city, yet the contract for actually building the bridge went to John Drake Mercereau, for cost-cutting purposes. The nearly 1428-foot long bridge was completed in over a year’s time in December 1913. Waddell would later build many gigantic structures over the next 25 years until his death in 1938.
Because of wear and tear and the fact that it was becoming functionally obsolete (because of the increase in the number and size of traffic), plans were in the making to replace the Colorado Street Bridge, starting with a freeway bridge in 1953 (known as the Arroyo Seco Viaduct), mimicking the design of the bridge. The bridge was closed to traffic in 1989, but on both occasions, citizens of Pasadena petitioned the city to find ways to preserve and restore the structure. After two years of politicking and campaigning, the city council in 1991 passed a resolution, providing millions of dollars in funding to restore the bridge, a process that took a year and a half to complete, from July 1991 until it finally opened to traffic in December 1993.
For those who have little knowledge of how an arch bridge like the Colorado Street Bridge can be restored, this book provides you with the restoration process described in pictures. During the restoration process, Tavo Olmos photographed the entire restoration process, from the start of the project, where the roadway was removed, to the time where the arches were retrofitted to increase its sturdiness and make them earthquake-resistant, to the completed work of widening the decking and adding the ornamental lighting.  Much of them were published in the book, published last year as part of the celebrations of the bridge’s 100th birthday. The book features some background information about the bridge and its dimensions, as well as its designer and bridge builder, before looking at the restoration process in pictures and the notes he took that were added in the book. Yet despite the fact that Olmos is a photographer, his book does not just feature photos of the entire restoration process. Articles written by people associated with the bridge and the project itself, which includes Claire Bogaard, the wife of the city mayor Bill Bogaard, members of the city public works, the city engineer and those involved with the project directly.  These articles were written in simple terms, describing the restoration process to the public in 2-4 pages that are easy to read and understand, if the reader is interested in knowing more about the restoration process.
Sometimes less is more and simplicity can speak more volumes than complication ever can offer. With the Colorado Street Bridge project, Olmos did not need to describe the process beyond what was shown in the pictures and notes supporting them, giving the reader the visualization of how bridge restoration works both in general if arch bridges are involved, but also in such a tall structure like Pasadena’s beloved icon. For preservationists and interested readers wanting to know how a bridge can be restored, it is highly recommended to buy/order this book, look at the pictures and read the comments from those behind the restoration process.
At 101 years of age, the bridge still lives on, both in pictures as well as in its original form. It is hoped that this book will provide a guidance where the bridge is an example of other bridges of its kind, both big and small, that can be restored if people have the efforts and manpower to conduct it. If not, the book has some history behind the bridge and how it became an integral part of Pasadena’s history.

Bird’s eye of the bridge at night.

 

Author’s Note: Tavo Olmos, whose photos were used for this article, was asked a few questions about the book by the Chronicles. The information from the interview is to follow. 

Book info:

Olmos, Tavo. The Colorado Street Bridge: Restoration Project Photographs 1991-1993  Pasadena, CA: Balcony Press, 2013

 

 

 

 

Mystery Bridge Nr. 15: A Wadell A-frame truss in Texas

Photo taken by Aaron Leibold

There will be many candidates that will make it into the nominations for the Ammann Awards for the category of Mystery Bridges. This bridge is one of them. Photographed by fellow pontist Aaron Leibold, who operates a website devoted to bridgehunting in Texas, this bridge is very unique because of its truss design, which contradicts what was previous mentioned by other pontists and historians alike.

Located in the northern part of Baylor County north of Seymour and spanning a creek that is feeding into Lake Kemp, this bridge is unique because of a rare truss type that was developed by a world renowned civil engineer, J.A.L. Waddell. Born in Port Hope, Ontario (Candad) in 1854, Waddell emigrated to the US where he earned his engineering degree at Rensselaer Polytechnical Institute in New York in 1878, before teaching engineering at that institute and other educational institutions in the US, Canada and even Japan (at the Tokyo Technical Institute). While he was famous for constructing and patenting many movable bridges in North America, including the ASB Bridge in Kansas City– the only bridge in the world whose main bottom span lifts up toward the upper span in a hydraulic fashion- Wadell patented the many truss spans including his A-frame span. The Waddell truss consists of a Kingpost truss bridge with subdivided diagonal beams supporting the upper chord. There are a few pony trusses with this unique feature- like the Schonemann Park Bridge in Luverne, in Rock County, Minnesota, which was built in 1908 by the Hewett Bridge Company and after spanning the Rock River for 82 years, was relocated to this site in 1990. But there are two through truss spans of this kind left in the country- one over Cross Bayou near Shreveport, Louisiana and one at a park in Parkville, Missouri.

It is possible that this bridge is a Waddell truss, given its Warren truss design, which if true, it would join the ranks and contradict the claim that there are two Waddell A-frame trusses left. But even more puzzling is the fact that trusses can be seen below the bridge deck, thus creating a diamond-shaped truss span. This would make it one of the most unique trusses ever built in the country and one that is the last of its kind.

Albeit abandoned with its replacement span being constructed alongside it, the bridge is 45 feet long and eight feet wide and can easily be seen from the new bridge. Given its location in a remote area, the bridge is in no danger of being demolished, and it should not be given the rarity of the truss bridge. What is missing is more details about its history- who built it (and had the crazy idea to design the bridge), let alone when it was constructed. This is where the people in Baylor County, as well as the preservationists in Texas and people like you should chip in to help.

If you have any information about the bridge’s history, you can leave a comment at the end of this article and/or contact the Chronicles and Aaron Leibold. The contact information is enclosed below. The Waddell Truss bridge has already been nominated for the Ammann Award under Mystery Bridge, a new category that was established this year. Whether it will win or not depends on how the voters will perceive this bridge. From my point of view, the bridge does have a chance.

Contact:

The Bridgehunter’s Chronicles: flensburg.bridgehunter.av@googlemail.com

Aaron Leibold: aaron.mightypenguin@gmail.com

Special thanks to Aaron Leibold for the nomination and the photo.