Mystery Bridge Nr. 162: A House Bridge in Flensburg?

Co-written with sister column:

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The 162nd mystery bridge takes us to the Schiffahrtsmuseum (Museum of Shipping and Rum) in Flensburg and to this 3D diagram of this community, dating back to the 16th Century. Geographically speaking, Flensburg is situated at the tip of the Flensburg Fjord, with much of the city center at the bottom of the hill on the western side and houses on the upper sides of the hill on both sides of the body of water. A mixture of housing and businesses can be found to the south of present-day Südermarkt, going towards the railway station and major highways. Little do we know about Flensburg is that it was once a walled-city.

From the 14th Century onwards, workers constructed a series of walls, gates and towers that would surround the town on the western side of the fjord. It surrounded the two churches, St. Nicolas and St. Mary’s as well as the buildings along the main stretch of street, which is known today as Holm and Roter Strasse (EN: Red Street). The wall was even built near the water below that street and extended toward the tip of the fjord, crossed the Mühlenteich near present-day Angelberger Strasse and went as far south as the point where the parking lot An der Exe is located today. On the north end, the wall extended below the Duburg school and reached its northernmost spot where the present-day Nordertor Gate is located. The city was walled in response to the increase of conflicts with the Danish, but also other intruders. By the middle of the 19th Century, much of the wall had disappeared and with that, the towers and gates, even though some historic markers and relicts can be found at the sites where they once stood. As many as 20 towers and gates existed during the time the city was surrounded by a wall.

Model of Nordertor and parts of the Wall.

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Our mystery bridge gives us a much closer look at one of the gates located at Angelburgerstrasse, near the tip, known today as Hafenspitze. Before going to that, we must look at the definition of a House Bridge. A house bridge was built between the 12th Century and the 17th Centuries and feature a stone arch bridge crossing that held houses on them. They are not covered bridges per se, as they are built solely with wood trusses and have rooves. House Bridges generally are uncovered and have outdoor openings for people to walk in and out of the houses, or simply meander past them. It is unknown how many were built during the aforementioned time period, but one of the well-known House Bridges that had existed was London Bridge, which was built in 1261 and after a fire, was rebuilt as a street crossing in 1831. Another house bridge that exists today in England is the Pulteney Bridge in Bath. In Germany, there are four known house bridges that exist. Most popular is the Krämerbrücke in Erfurt, the other three are known to exist in Bavaria: in Bad Kreuznach, Bamberg and Nuremberg.

Looking closer on the 3D diagram, there is one that may have exist in Flensburg. It’s located at the site where Angelsbergerstrasse is located today. It crossed a river known as Mühlengraben, which transports water into the Fjord at Hafenspitze. It appears that a gate is sitting over the crossing which was built as a stone arch bridge, using stone as the materials. A side view of the bridge can be found here:

Side view of Angelberger Gate and Bridge.

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Even though this is an artist’s depiction of the house bridge, it is unknown what exactly it looked like- whether there were one or more arch spans and whether the house looked like what was shown in the pictures. It is known that it had existed from the 15th Century until its dismantling in 1843. Anything else beyond that is wide open. The site today features a bridge crossing and former bike shop that was built inside the abutment. 100 meters away and towards the Hafenspitze is the Split, where the railroad line crosses Hafendamm with two bridges before terminating on both sides of the fjord. That line was built in 1920 but has been abandoned for almost a decade now.

The bridge with bike shop. Read more about it here.

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The Split near Hafenspitze

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As for the streams that emptied into the fjord, there were three that existed in and around Flensburg, making a confluence before passing through the former gate at Angelberger Strasse. Looking at the rendering of the drawing of Flensburg during the 16th Century, it may have been a lake when the streams met. While only one of them exists, much of was converted into an underwater channel. The rest were emptied and filled in.

Mühlgraben and its confluence with other streams before passing through the former gate at Angelberger Strasse

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The 3D exhibit, which can be found at the Schiffahrtsmuseum in Flensburg, shows what Flensburg may have looked like 400 years ago. While much of the buildings, including the churches, still exist to this day, as with the main street, there are some questions that have remained open pertaining to what actually existed in Flensburg. This includes the bridges that existed prior to 1800 and with that, we refer to this mystery bridge at Angelberger Strasse. While we may be able to seach through the records to find what we are looking for, chances are likely, due to four wars Flensburg was in- two with the Danes and the two World Wars, much of the records may be lost forever, and it would take a time machine to travel back to the days city was once walled.

But since that is all science fiction, I still hold out hope that there is more to the history of the crossing at Angelberger Strasse than what has been shown through displays and photos of the present crossing.

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What do you know about this bridge in terms of its history? What about the history of the river that emptied into the harbor, or the other crossings that existed when Flensburg was a walled town? Tell us about it. Comment in the section below or send an e-mail, using the contact form here.

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If you are interested in contributing photos and/or information for the bridge book project on Schleswig-Holstein’s bridges, here is the information about the project. Feel free to contact me using the contact details here.

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Happy Bridgehunting, folks. 🙂

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Mystery Bridge Nr. 138: The Unknown Bridge at the German-Danish Border

This Mystery Bridge entry is a joint-article written with The Flensburg Files as part of the series on the 100th Anniversary of the German-Danish Border and German-Danish Friendship.

One can see it from Google-Maps and if the skies are clear, from an airplane. Yet this mystery bridge is rather hidden in the forest and can only be reached by bike or on foot- assuming you don’t have a border to cross. This bridge is located right at the German-Danish border at Zollsiedlung, a district of Harrislee that is north of Flensburg and south of the Danish cities of Krusau and Pattburg.

Zollsiedlung at the Border. Here was where a hotel and border station located.

It’s three kilometers north of the Bridge of Friendship at Wassersleben, which is also a German-Danish pedestrian crossing. And like that bridge, this one crosses the Stream Krusau, which empties into the Flensburg Fjord. The crossing is known as the northermost in Germany and this since the creation of the German-Danish border in 1920. The bridge is accessible only by bike or on foot for there’s no cars allowed at the border.

What is known is that the bridge is a concrete beam bridge, yet judging by its wear and tear, it was probably built in the 1970s or 80s. It’s 12-15 meters long and narrow enough for one car to cross, even though the Madeskovvej is solely for bike and pedestrian use, unless you have a private residence nearby.

What is unknown is when exactly it was built and whether there was a previous structure at this location. If there was, then what did it look like?

We do know is that the bridge is owned by the Danes and is at the border that was established through a referendum in 1920. Flensburg and the areas of Tondern, Sonderburg, Apenrade, Hoyer, Husum, Schleswig and Rendsburg belonged to the former state of Schleswig which had been fought over three times between Denmark and the former Prussian (and later German) Empire. With Germany having lost World War I and being forced to pay reparations to France, Britain and the USA, the Versailles Treaty included a clause that allowed residents in the region to vote on moving the border, which had stopped at Sonderburg and Tonder in the north but had a potential to be pushed as far south as the Baltic-North Sea Canal . The present border was established through a referendum that was conducted on 10 February and 14 March, 1920, respectively, where the northern half (Sonderburg, Apenrade and Tondern) voted to be annexed by Denmark, while the southern half and Flensburg voted to remain in Germany. The votes were unanimous despite both areas having strong minorities. Flensburg remained a border town, despite having survived World War II with damages due to the bomb raids. Today, both the Danes and German are able to cross the border and do their shopping and commerce in their respective neighboring countries.

While at the bridge, it was fenced off because of restrictions due to the Corona Virus but also due to the Swine Flu that has been a major concern since 2015. Still, it didn’t stop the photographer from stealing a couple pics before moving on with hiking in the Tunnel Valley (Tunneltal), where the Krusau flows towards Niehuus. While walking towards the area, one has to wonder how this bridge came about? Any ideas?

A separate article on the German-Danish border will be posted in the Flensburg Files. If you want to tour Flensburg’s bridges, click here.

     

Taking You Back: Most Bizarre Encounters with People and Animals

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Peelewatt Viaduct near the EUF in Flensburg

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In connection with the 10th anniversary of the Bridgehunter’s Chronicles, we are starting our first of many initiatives to commemorate 10 years of bridgehunting and preserving historic bridges. Our first one has to do with the topic of bridgehunting and this question:

BRIDGEHUNTING AND THE MOST BIZARRE ENCOUNTERS WITH PEOPLE AND ANIMALS.

Specifically, what was the most bizarre experience that you have ever encountered while photographing or finding bridges?

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Coulee Creek Bridge at Kornhill Rd. near Wadena in Fayette County, Iowa

A pair of stories come to mind while talking about this- both of which happened in 2011, just in two different places.

  1. FLENSBURG, GERMANY- During my stay in April for Easter, I found a tall arch bridge spanning a rail line connecting Flensburg with Kiel- the latter is the capital of Schleswig-Holstein. Known by locals as the Peelewatt Viaduct, the best photos were the ones in an open field near the campus of the European University of Flensburg, as well as right up at the tracks. The only challenge: fighting through bushes of thorns that separated the open field and the main highway passing the university. After minutes of fighting through them, I marched towards the bridge, only to be greeted by two different unpleasantries: a couple having sex next to a tree and their Rotweiler dog making a charge towards me, growling and snarling, as I retreated back into the thorny bushes! Eventually I found another way to the viaduct but not before encountering people who saw me as if Rocky Balboa had just finished a boxing match with Clubber Lang- scratched and bruised. Luckily not bitten by the hound.
  2. FAYETTE COUNTY, IOWA- This happened shortly before the Historic Bridge Weekend in St. Louis and I was looking around for some historic bridges. I find a two-span culvert spanning a creek on Kornhill Road near Wadena. Because of the material used for construction and its unique railings, I stopped for a pair of pics, including one on the side. That didn’t bode well for one nearby property owner who ran half-naked down the hill to confront me, accusing me of being a hunter. When he realized I was photographing a bridge, I was allowed to leave but not before taking this advice: “Ask first before entering.” Since when was a ditch private property?

These are just two examples. The question is what about you, not just as a bridgehunter but also a photographer or someone who just found a diamond for a crossing?

Feel free to add your story by using two options:

  1. You can write yours in the comment section or
  2. You can send your story via mail and it will be added as an article separately.

Photos are welcomed. If you want to use a pseudo-name to protect your real identity, it is fully ok. Privacy is just as important as the story itself. Stories will be accepted throughout the year. Give us your best story!

Have fun! 🙂

BHC 10 years

BHC Newsflyer: 29 April, 2019

Podcast of the Newsflyer available here: https://soundcloud.com/jason-smith-966247957/bhc-newsflyer-29-april-2019

 

News Stories:

Cascade Bridge in Burlington, Iowa closed- future unknown

Rockville (Utah) Truss Bridge Re-opening Ceremony on May 3rd

Lindaunis-Schlei Drawbridge to be replaced

Article found here

Profile on the Bridge in 2011

Railroad Bridge in Calw (near Stuttgart) in danger of collapse

Replacement bridge project for Levensau Arch Bridge starts

Historic Bridge at Hull Drive near York (PA) being rehabilitated

Three bridges in Erfurt to be replaced- one of them is the Riethbrücke

Project to replace bridge in Magdeburg on hold due to legal dispute

Waiho Bridge Rebuilt and Reopened

 

PLUS: Tour Guide being updated. Click here.

 

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Book Project on Schleswig-Holstein’s Bridges Underway: Now Accepting Information, Photos and Stories

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Rendsburg High Bridge spanning the Baltic-North Sea Canal. Photo taken in 2011

Touted by many to be the most beautiful state in Germany, Schleswig-Holstein offers a mixture of landscapes and climates to attract the vacationer wishing to escape the city life. It is sandwiched by two different seas- the North Sea in the west and the Baltic Sea in the east, each offering different forms of flora and fauna as well as Schietwetter (storms producing high winds, torrential downpours and high tides). The Baltic-North Sea Canal, connecting the state capital of Kiel with Brunsbüttel via Rendsburg slices the state into two, even though the 1895 canal replaced a 1700s canal that complimented the longest river in the state, the Eider. That river starts near Kiel and ends in the North Sea, but not before passing through bridge-laden towns of Rendsburg, Friedrichstadt and Tönning, while at the same time, connecting with the rivers Treene and Sorge.

The hills east of Kiel and in the Seegeberg region provides a great backdrop for photographers wishing to get some pictures of scenery along the river Schwentine, which also gets its additional water from the lakes region near Plön and Eutin, located between Kiel and Lübeck. At the same time, the state is bordered to the south and east by two major waterways: the Elbe to the south and the 80 kilometer long Lauenburg-Lübeck Canal to the east. From Lübeck going north into Denmark, the state receives additional water from the Baltic Sea in the form of fjords, found in Kiel, the Schlei region and Flensburg. The western half is characterized by flat plains with gullies and diversion canals to channel water and protect farmlands and beaches from flooding.

 

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Stone Arch Bridge in Friedrichstadt: the oldest in the Dutch community at 240+ years. Photo taken in August 2017

With all this water, one needs to cross it- by bridge!

 

Many books have been written about the history of places in Schleswig-Holstein and the different regions full of natural habitats and historic places of interest. There are enough books on light houses (including the famous Westerhever), windmills (like the ones in the Dithmarschen, Schleswig and Ostholstein districts), and holiday resorts (like St. Peter-Ording, Travemünde and Fehmarn) to fill up a library section, just with those alone. There is even a book on the Faces of Flensburg, focusing on the people who made the former rum capital and key port famous, including the founder of the adult entertainment store, Beate Uhse, who opened the world’s first store of this type in 1962.

 

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Bridge of Friendship at the German-Danish border north of Flensburg. Photo taken in 2010

Yet with many bridges in Schleswig-Holstein- many of which have histories going back over 100 years, only two books have been written about this topic: one on the bridges along the Baltic-North Sea Canal, one on the dual draw bridge north of Lübeck (which no longer exists). The most recent book, published last year, commemorated the centennial of the two-span arch bridge in Friedrichstadt, whose drawbridge span allows for passage along the Eider.  Not even a book on the Fehmarn Bridge, the world’s first basket-handle tied arch bridge has been written.

 

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White Draw Bridge in Tönning

This leads us to the question of why we’ve neglected to write about the other bridges in the state.

 

Since 2011, I’ve been photographing and writing about some of the bridges in the state, which includes the cities of Kiel, Flensburg, Lübeck and Friedrichstadt as well as the bridges along the Baltic-North Sea Canal, wondering what they looked like a century before, how they were built and who built them. In addition, research is being undertaken to find out what other bridges exist in the present, had existed before getting replaced by modern structures and who were behind the building of the bridges. Even more interesting is the role of bridge engineers in Schleswig-Holstein, as the state imported many famous ones, like Friedrich Voss and Hermann Muthesius but exported just as many to other regions in Germany, Europe and even the United States. Lawrence H. Johnson was one of those who made his mark both as a bridge builder and a politician- in the state of Minnesota!

 

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One of many pedestrian crossings over the gullies and canals at Westerhever Lighthouse

With as much work put in as possible, the decision has been made to write a book on the bridges in Schleswig-Holstein. This five-year project will focus on the bridges, past and present, which has shaped the state and its infrastructure, while at the same time, fostered tourism, business and commerce, especially over the last 150+ years. At the same time, however, we will look at the engineers who left their mark in the state while those, who originated from S-H, emigrated to other places to leave their legacies.  The work will be written in three languages: German, English and Danish, reflecting on the languages of the residents and those who are interested in reading this piece and visiting the sites.

 

I’m looking for the following in order to complete this book project:

 

  1. Old photos, postcards and information on the bridges in Schleswig-Holstein, especially including the previous crossings (those that were replaced with today’s modern structures) and ones that no longer exists. This includes bridges in towns and cities as well as along the rivers: Stör, Eider, Sorge, Trave, Aarau, Treene and Schwentine, and also those along the canals: Alte Eider, Lauenburg-Lübeck and Gieselau.

 

  1. Stories about the bridges in Schleswig-Holstein that are memorable and worth mentioning in the book. Already mentioned in the book on the Eider Bridge in Friedrichstadt, sometimes stories and memories about the bridge makes the crossing one worth remembering.

 

  1. Information on the bridge engineers in Schleswig-Holstein who left their mark in bridge building, apart from Friedrich Voss as well as those who originated from the state that left their mark elsewhere, like Lawrence H. Johnson.

 

  1. As the book will feature the Danish version, I’m looking for a Danish translator, preferably either a native speaker or one who has mastered the language (as the Germans would say, Sicher in Wort und Schrift)

 

If you have any information that will be of use for the book or would like to support the book project in anyway, shape or form, please use the contact form below and send me a line. You can also contact the Chronicles via facebook by using its messenger on its page. Additional contact information is available by request.

 

 

Please feel free to pass this information around to anyone who wants to contribute, as this is open to not only bridge experts and enthusiasts, but also locals and people who either have knowledge of the bridges in Schleswig-Holstein, are willing to help out or both.

 

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An 1800s arch bridge spanning the River Schwentine in Kiel

With many key bridges out there (going beyond the ones that I’ve profiled), and many historic bridges being replaced with modern ones, whose lifespans are half of that of their predecessors, it is time to bring them to light. Because after all, they have just as much value to Schleswig-Holstein as the other key features the state has to offer. One has to click on the highlighted names in this article and look at the offer of books for sale at a local book store or via amazon to find out how important these structures are for the development of the state that prides itself on sailing, shipping, handball, sheep, windmills, farming, Sauerfleisch, rum, roasted potatoes, beer, Schietwetter and the famous greeting of “Moin moin!”

 

 

 

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Book Project on Schleswig-Holstein’s Bridges Underway: Now Accepting Information, Photos and Stories

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Rendsburg High Bridge spanning the Baltic-North Sea Canal. Photo taken in 2011

Touted by many to be the most beautiful state in Germany, Schleswig-Holstein offers a mixture of landscapes and climates to attract the vacationer wishing to escape the city life. It is sandwiched by two different seas- the North Sea in the west and the Baltic Sea in the east, each offering different forms of flora and fauna as well as Schietwetter (storms producing high winds, torrential downpours and high tides). The Baltic-North Sea Canal, connecting the state capital of Kiel with Brunsbüttel via Rendsburg slices the state into two, even though the 1895 canal replaced a 1700s canal that complimented the longest river in the state, the Eider. That river starts near Kiel and ends in the North Sea, but not before passing through bridge-laden towns of Rendsburg, Friedrichstadt and Tönning, while at the same time, connecting with the rivers Treene and Sorge.

The hills east of Kiel and in the Seegeberg region provides a great backdrop for photographers wishing to get some pictures of scenery along the river Schwentine, which also gets its additional water from the lakes region near Plön and Eutin, located between Kiel and Lübeck. At the same time, the state is bordered to the south and east by two major waterways: the Elbe to the south and the 80 kilometer long Lauenburg-Lübeck Canal to the east. From Lübeck going north into Denmark, the state receives additional water from the Baltic Sea in the form of fjords, found in Kiel, the Schlei region and Flensburg. The western half is characterized by flat plains with gullies and diversion canals to channel water and protect farmlands and beaches from flooding.

 

IMGP8016
Stone Arch Bridge in Friedrichstadt: the oldest in the Dutch community at 240+ years. Photo taken in August 2017

With all this water, one needs to cross it- by bridge!

 

Many books have been written about the history of places in Schleswig-Holstein and the different regions full of natural habitats and historic places of interest. There are enough books on light houses (including the famous Westerhever), windmills (like the ones in the Dithmarschen, Schleswig and Ostholstein districts), and holiday resorts (like St. Peter-Ording, Travemünde and Fehmarn) to fill up a library section, just with those alone. There is even a book on the Faces of Flensburg, focusing on the people who made the former rum capital and key port famous, including the founder of the adult entertainment store, Beate Uhse, who opened the world’s first store of this type in 1962.

 

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Bridge of Friendship at the German-Danish border north of Flensburg. Photo taken in 2010

Yet with many bridges in Schleswig-Holstein- many of which have histories going back over 100 years, only two books have been written about this topic: one on the bridges along the Baltic-North Sea Canal, one on the dual draw bridge north of Lübeck (which no longer exists). The most recent book, published last year, commemorated the centennial of the two-span arch bridge in Friedrichstadt, whose drawbridge span allows for passage along the Eider.  Not even a book on the Fehmarn Bridge, the world’s first basket-handle tied arch bridge has been written.

 

IMGP7661
White Draw Bridge in Tönning

This leads us to the question of why we’ve neglected to write about the other bridges in the state.

 

Since 2011, I’ve been photographing and writing about some of the bridges in the state, which includes the cities of Kiel, Flensburg, Lübeck and Friedrichstadt as well as the bridges along the Baltic-North Sea Canal, wondering what they looked like a century before, how they were built and who built them. In addition, research is being undertaken to find out what other bridges exist in the present, had existed before getting replaced by modern structures and who were behind the building of the bridges. Even more interesting is the role of bridge engineers in Schleswig-Holstein, as the state imported many famous ones, like Friedrich Voss and Hermann Muthesius but exported just as many to other regions in Germany, Europe and even the United States. Lawrence H. Johnson was one of those who made his mark both as a bridge builder and a politician- in the state of Minnesota!

 

IMGP6744
One of many pedestrian crossings over the gullies and canals at Westerhever Lighthouse

With as much work put in as possible, the decision has been made to write a book on the bridges in Schleswig-Holstein. This five-year project will focus on the bridges, past and present, which has shaped the state and its infrastructure, while at the same time, fostered tourism, business and commerce, especially over the last 150+ years. At the same time, however, we will look at the engineers who left their mark in the state while those, who originated from S-H, emigrated to other places to leave their legacies.  The work will be written in three languages: German, English and Danish, reflecting on the languages of the residents and those who are interested in reading this piece and visiting the sites.

 

I’m looking for the following in order to complete this book project:

 

  1. Old photos, postcards and information on the bridges in Schleswig-Holstein, especially including the previous crossings (those that were replaced with today’s modern structures) and ones that no longer exists. This includes bridges in towns and cities as well as along the rivers: Stör, Eider, Sorge, Trave, Aarau, Treene and Schwentine, and also those along the canals: Alte Eider, Lauenburg-Lübeck and Gieselau.

 

  1. Stories about the bridges in Schleswig-Holstein that are memorable and worth mentioning in the book. Already mentioned in the book on the Eider Bridge in Friedrichstadt, sometimes stories and memories about the bridge makes the crossing one worth remembering.

 

  1. Information on the bridge engineers in Schleswig-Holstein who left their mark in bridge building, apart from Friedrich Voss as well as those who originated from the state that left their mark elsewhere, like Lawrence H. Johnson.

 

  1. As the book will feature the Danish version, I’m looking for a Danish translator, preferably either a native speaker or one who has mastered the language (as the Germans would say, Sicher in Wort und Schrift)

 

If you have any information that will be of use for the book or would like to support the book project in anyway, shape or form, please use the contact form below and send me a line. You can also contact the Chronicles via facebook by using its messenger on its page. Additional contact information is available by request.

 

 

Please feel free to pass this information around to anyone who wants to contribute, as this is open to not only bridge experts and enthusiasts, but also locals and people who either have knowledge of the bridges in Schleswig-Holstein, are willing to help out or both.

 

IMGP2423
An 1800s arch bridge spanning the River Schwentine in Kiel

With many key bridges out there (going beyond the ones that I’ve profiled), and many historic bridges being replaced with modern ones, whose lifespans are half of that of their predecessors, it is time to bring them to light. Because after all, they have just as much value to Schleswig-Holstein as the other key features the state has to offer. One has to click on the highlighted names in this article and look at the offer of books for sale at a local book store or via amazon to find out how important these structures are for the development of the state that prides itself on sailing, shipping, handball, sheep, windmills, farming, Sauerfleisch, rum, roasted potatoes, beer, Schietwetter and the famous greeting of “Moin moin!”

 

Stay tuned for some articles to be posted on some bridges in the Eiderstedt region, where the author vacationed for a couple weeks.

 

bhc-logo-newest1  FF new logo1

The Bridges along the Baltic-North Sea Canal Part I: The Grand Canal

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Underneath the Europabruecke near Rendsburg. Photo taken in May 2011

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The Bridgehunter’s Chronicles is doing an upgrade of the tour guides of the bridge-laden regions the author visited, by relocating them to the wordpress version of the column and updating them with maps and information. This includes the series on the Bridges along the Baltic-North Sea Canal in the German state of Schleswig-Holstein, which the author visited in 2011. Unlike the areavoices version, the tour will be done in reverse order starting with part I on the Grand Canal, followed by part II on the Rendsburg High Bridge, part III on the Alter Eider Canal, which runs parallel to the Grand Canal between Rendsburg and Kiel, and lastly, the bridges in Kiel, the state capital and where the canal empties into the Baltic Sea after a 90-km trip across the state. 

Our first stop on the tour of the canal area in northern and central Schleswig-Holstein is the bridges along the Grand Canal itself, known as the Baltic-North Sea Canal (in German: Nord-Ostsee Kanal.  To understand more about the canal, one has to look at the history of it, which is plentiful in color. We already know that the first canal followed the same path as the river Eider, swerving about like a snake through Knoop, Rathmannsdorf, Kluvensiek and Schinkeln, running parallel to the present day canal between Kiel and Rendsburg before taking a more northerly route in the direction of Friedrichstadt and Tönnern before emptying into the North Sea. As the decades wore on however, the boat traffic increased in size and volume and despite its unique construction, the canal locks, let alone the double-leaf bascule bridges built to cater to horse and buggy at that time, were no longer able to accommodate the marine traffic. Therefore beginning in 1887, engineers of the German Navy embarked on a plan to construct a newer and wider canal that would run straighter than the Alter Eider and on a shorter length than its predecessor so that in the end, the Grand Canal would flow southwesterly from Rendsburg, past Gruenental and Hochdonn, and emptying into the North Sea at Brunsbüttel, approximately 65 km south of Friedrichstadt. The length totalled 90 km, which is more than half the distance of the Eider Canal. While the canal was built as a means of providing a short naval route instead of going around Denmark, the Grand Canal today serves as a shortcut for the shipping and commerce.

Ten Bridges serve the Canal, including the Rendsburg High Bridge. Yet because of its historic and technical significance, a separate article accompanies this one as part of the series on the Bridges of the Grand Canal. The following profiles features bridges that you can see when travelling along the canal, going from Kiel to Brunsbüttel:

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Olympia Bridge (left) and Prince Heinrich Bridge (right). Photo taken in May 2011

Prince Heinrich and Olympia Bridges: The twin bridges, with the identical shape and color are the first bridges to see when entering the Grand Canal from the Kiel side. They are located 700 meters from the first canal lock from the side of the Baltic Sea. Yet they have been together since 1996. Before that, there was a true landmark that was part of Kiel’s heritage. While the first bridge consisted of a combination of a pontoon and swing bridge, which opened to allow ships to pass, the 1912 truss and trestle bridge replaced the 17-year old temporary structure. It was one of the first architectural artwork designed by Friedrich Voss, the same person who built the Rendsburg High Bridge (which will be discussed in a separate article), and the Friedrichstadt Arch Bridge (which you will find here). The 320 meter long bridge featured two deck trusses supported by steel trestles resembling a bow tie and a 110 meter long subdivided Warren through truss with riveted connections and a V-frame portal bracing (also subdivided).  A link with post cards of the bridge can be found here.

While the bridge sustained substantial damage during World War II, it was repaired and served as a single lane bridge connecting Kiel and its suburb Holtenau until 1972, when an additional bridge was deemed necessary as part of the plan to convert the road into an expressway. The Olympia Bridge was 150 meters longer than Prince Heinrich, yet the decision on which bridge type to build remains to this day a controversial subject. While the majority of the residents favored an identical truss design, their plea fell on deaf ears as the Kiel city council voted for a steel deck girder bridge. For 19 years, the two bridges served traffic, with the Olympia Bridge serving traffic going to Holtenau; Prince Heinrich going to Kiel. Yet due to extreme corrosion on the truss bridge, the two communities voted unanimously in 1990 to replace the 1912 bridge with an identical deck girder bridge. Again  the decision was against the will of the majority who favored a cable-stayed bridge instead of the design chosen by then state representative Gerhard Stoltenberg.

 

The truss bridge was demolished during the summer of 1992. During the dismantling process, the eastern approach span collapsed on its own in August, taking two cranes with. Fortunately no one was injured. As soon as the bridge was removed, the replacement span was built, taking 58 months complete. Reason: design and construction flaws combined with increasing costs resulted in delays in its construction and impatience among the Kiel city council. Yet when the new span was completed, the bridge resembled its sister span the Olympia Bridge. Since 1997, both bridges have been serving the expressway connecting Kiel and Holtenau with the replacement bridge serving the role once taken by Prince Heinrich. Yet for many in Kiel, the bridges serve as an eyesore for the decision to build a modern bridge was against their will for they wanted something that the city can be proud of and not something bland. The aesthetics of the bridge today are questionable even from the author’s point of view, but if there is a consolation, the bridges serve as a marker

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Photo taken in May 2011

Levensau Bridge:

Located just 10 km west of the Olympia and Prince Heinrich Bridges, this bridge is unique because of its unique design. Made of steel, this bridge features a half-pony and half deck arch design. Built in 1894 by Hermann Muthesius, it used to feature a through truss design in a form of a Howe design. Its decking featured rail traffic between Kiel and Flensburg for the eastern half and vehicular traffic for the western half. A picture of the bridge can be found here. Yet, as mentioned in the bridge quiz a few weeks ago, the bridge became a safety hazard by the early 1950s, as collisions at the portal entry were the norm- in many cases with injuries involved. Henceforth, beginning in 1952 and lasting for two years, the through truss portion and the concrete portal entries were removed, the roadways were reallocated and separated with a barrier to ensure through traffic and better passage, additional steel supports were added to the deck arch sections, and the entire bridge was stripped down to resemble its present form today.

 

The stripped down version of the Levensau Bridge was reopened to traffic in 1954 and continued to be the lone link between Kiel and Levensau for another 20 years. An additional bridge was added to relieve the bridge of heavy masses of traffic in 1974.  The bridge still remains in use, yet its days will soon be numbered. Plans are in the making to demolish the bridge and replace it with a tied arch span as part of the plans to widen and deepen the Grand Canal. Specifically, the new span will be built on top of the old span, which will then be dismantled one-by-one until only the abutments are left. They will be preserved and used as observation points as well as a place of habitats for a rare species of bats that exist inside. At present, preparations are underway to demolish the old bridge, which is expected to take place by the latest 2021. The new bridge, which will be a basket weave tied arch span mimicking the Fehmarn Bridge, is expected to be open by 2025. It will serve both vehicular and rail traffic.

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Oblique view of Europebruecke near Rendsburg. Photo taken in May 2011

Rendsburg’s Highway Bridge and Tunnel:

About a third of the way down the canal we come to Rendsburg, a city of 30,000 that once prided itself on the cast iron industry, but is now simply a tourist trap. Rendsburg is a rather quiet community with friendly people who enjoy talking about its heritage and history. And the city should be proud of it, especially when it comes to its bridges. Several bascule bridges were erected over the Alt Eider Canal in and around Rendsburg, most of which were built by the cast iron company Carlshütte (for more information, please refer to Part I and the Kluvensiek Bridge). Yet as iron became a fad of the past thanks to the coming of steel, so was the canal itself as the Grand Canal replaced it and effectively made these bridges obsolete. Today another landmark overshadows the city, which we’ll talk about in the next article with the Rendsburg High Bridge, yet two other crossings existed over the Grand Canal: The City Tunnel and the Europe Bridge. The City Tunnel was built in 1961, replacing the steel swing bridge, built using a cantilever truss design. That bridge featured two spans, each with a turning wheel, that would turn outwards to allow ships to pass. Because of the traffic congestion along the main street going through Rendsburg which the bridge carried, combined with the rust and corrosion and the hindrance of marine traffic, that bridge was taken out of service in favor of two tunnels, each one carrying one-way traffic. Two additional tunnels for bikes and pedestrians were added in 1965. At the same time of the construction of the tunnel, plans were approved to construct an Autobahn-Bridge spanning the Grand Canal. The 1491 meter  long bridge (with a 221 meter main span) was christened the Raderbrücke (or Europabrücke), as it not only connected Flensburg and Hamburg via A7, but it created the longest Autobahn in not only Germany (at 961 kilometers in length), but Europe, connecting Flensburg with Füssen in Bavaria, but Scandanavia (namely Kolding, Aalborg, Copenhagen and Stockholm) with the Alps region (and with it, Austria and Switzerland). The bridge has been serving traffic since its opening in 1972. However, plans are in place to replace the entire structure to better accommodate Motorway A7 beginning in 2018. A new span will be built alongside the current one, which after that bridge is open to traffic, will be torn down and replaced. All in all, two bridges with three lanes in each direction will be in service by 2026.

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Oblique view of Grünental Bridge. Photo taken in 1987 by Rainer Bütenschön, used with permission

Grünethal Bridge

Located near the town of Beldorf, this 1892 structure, featuring a half through and half arch bridge and serving a local road and railroad line. Little has been mentioned about this bridge except for the fact that it is most likely the second bridge built along the canal by Hermann Muthesius, the same person who built the Levensau Bridge near Kiel. Furthermore, it was one of two bridges in Schleswig-Holstein that carried both vehicular and rail traffic (the Heide- Neumuenster Line). The Lindaunis Schlei drawbridge is the other bridge.   The bridge served traffic for 92 years before severe rust and corrosion on the superstructure led to first a severe weight restriction, forbidding trucks from using the bridge, later the German Railways to cease train service across the bridge, and finally its eventual replacement with the present structure, a Warren through truss bridge with no vertical beams.  The arch bridge, deemed unsafe even for pedestrian use, was taken off its foundation using two massive cranes in 1988 and cut up and hauled away for scrap metal. Only the brick abutments, once used as portal entrance before its partial demolition in 1952, remain as observation decks. Unique is the fact that the state shield of Schleswig-Holstein, made of iron, can be seen while passing under the new bridge.

 

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Main span of Hochdonn Bridge. Photo taken by Rainer Bütenschön. Used with permission

 

Hochdonn Bridge

Featuring Warren deck truss approaches supported by steel bowtie-like trestle towers and a Camelback Warren through truss main span over the canal, the 2218 meter long Hochdonn Viaduct cannot be missed while travelling along the Grand Canal. Built between 1913 and 1920, this bridge is possibly the third bridge built by Friedrich Voss, who had previously built the Prince Heinrich Bridge near Kiel in 1912 and the Rendsburg High Bridge , one year later. It replaced a swing bridge located west of Hochdonn, which was removed and replaced with a ferry today. Since its opening in 1920, the bridge has been serving rail traffic between Hamburg and the Island of Sylt, located at the German-Danish border.  The only work done on this bridge was between 2005 and 2008, when the deck truss trestle spans were rehabilitated and the 42 meter high main span was replaced with a replica of the original bridge. In historic standards, it would have compromised the bridge’s historical integrity, but given the circumstances, and the fact that the truss swapping was necessary because the original span sustained severe corrosion making the rehabilitation impossible, it was deemed necessary to carry out this work while keeping the bridge’s integrity in tact. It has worked, as the bridge is still considered historically significant on the state level. A link with detailed photos of the bridge can be found here.

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Deck truss approach spans. Photo taken by Rainer Bütenschön, used with permission

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View of the towering trestle approaches

 

Hohenhorn Viaduct:

The last two bridges crossing the canal are not only the westernmost bridges, but they serve the main artery connecting Hamburg and the Island of Sylt, passing through the cities of Itzehoe, Husum and Heide. The Hohenhorn Viaduct, built in 1989, is the younger of the two bridges, and serves the Autobahn motorway 23, which connects Heide and Hamburg. It was built as a relief to the main highway 5, although stretches of them have been replaced by the motorway since then. It still serves traffic today. The 390 meter long bridge features a similar main-span steel cantilever bridge to that of the Europa Bridge, but it one of the shortest bridges along the canal.

 

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Main-span of the Brunsbuttel Bridge. Photo taken by Nightflyer. Can be viewed here: http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hochbr%C3%BCcke_Brunsb%C3%BCttel

Brunsbüttel Bridge

At 2831 meters long, the Brunsbüttel Bridge, the last bridge before approaching the North Sea, serves the Main Highway 5, which runs along the North Sea coast. Built in 1983, the bridge, which featured a Warren through truss main span and two deck girder approach spans, is not only the longest bridge over the Grand Canal, but it is also one of the longest bridges in Germany. Given the landscape where the bridge is located, the bridge can be easily seen from a distance of as far as 10 kilometers in both directions.

To sum up the tour of the Bridges along the Baltic-North Sea Canal, the canal is rich in history, not only in its construction and how the towns profited from it, but also the bridges that either used to cross it or still cross it. There are many bridges in shapes and sized that a person can see. Yet there is one bridge that was left out of all this, which we will get to as we approach Part II: The Rendsburg High Bridge.

Here’s a map with the complete guide of the bridges along the Baltic North Sea Canal, which features both the Grand Canal and the Alt Eider, which the former supplanted. This includes both the Rendsburg High Bridge, which will be in part II and the Alt Eider, which will be in part III. Kiel is not included in the map as there is a separate one, but will be featured in Part IV.

 

Special Thanks to Rainer Butenschön for the photos of the Hochdonn and Grünental Bridges and for allowing the author to use a couple of them for this article.

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Transporter of World-Renowned Bridge to Be Replaced

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Original of 1913 Transporter part of the Rendsburg High Bridge irreparable; German government plans reconstruction.

RENDSBURG, GERMANY- Relief but also with mixed reaction from the residents of Rendsburg, as well as those in the German state of Schleswig-Holstein and many preservationists and pontists alike regarding the city’s prized architectural work, the Rendsburg High Bridge. The transporter portion of the cantilever Warren through truss bridge, built in 1913, sustained substantial damage in a collision with a ship on 8 January.

 

 

Despite campaigns to rebuild the original transporter and operator’s house, the German Ministry of Transport has just announced that because of the extensive damage, it cannot be salvaged. Instead, a brand new transporter will be constructed in its place.  A sigh of relief or a sign of disappointment for the people who are attached to the bridge?  According to an interview with the newspaper SHZ, Rendsburg’s mayor Pierre Gilgenast, the reaction is mixed. On the one hand, he and many others are disappointed that the original transporter cannot be replaced. On the other hand, building a brand new transporter will eliminate the need to have a ferry trafficking people across the Baltic-North Sea Canal (a.k.a. The Grand Canal). Since June 7th, two ferries have been bussing people across the heavily travelled canal for eight hours daily on workdays only, and on weekends during the school summer break. This is a temporary relief for commuters who have been using the Rendsburg tunnel and the Europabrücke at Motorway 7 to cross.

 

 

A lot is at stake for the Rendsburg High Bridge. At the moment, neither the timeline of the construction of the new transporter has been given nor has money been earmarked for the project, yet the mayor and other parties are working with authorities in Berlin to have a concrete plan as to when the new portion will be built. Gilgenast is hoping that the plan and the project will start as soon as possible.  In addition to that, the damage to the transporter has hurt the chances of this unique superstructure to be listed as a World Heritage Site by the international organization UNESCO. Originally, the bridge was expected to be listed at the earliest 2017. The city is hoping that the replica being planned is exactly like the original that was destroyed in the collision.  For almost 20 years, the structure has been declared a Technical Heritage Site on the national level. It is hoped that the accolade reaches the international level, but all of this depends on when and how the transporter is rebuilt.

 

 

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Built in 1913, the Rendsburg High Bridge is the centerpiece of  the architectural works of famous German engineer, Friedrich Voss, whose credit also goes to the building of the Hochdonn Bridge, the Arch Bridge at Friedrichstadt and the now demolished Prince Heinrich Bridge in Kiel.  The Rendsburg High Bridge features a loop approach span north of the Grand Canal built using brick arch and steel trestle spans, inspired by the construction of the now demolished Hastings Spiral Bridge in Minnesota. The main span features a cantilever Warren through truss, which carries rail traffic between Flensburg and Hamburg. Underneath the truss span is the transporter span, which had carried pedestrians and cyclists across the canal prior to its collision with the freight ship in January. An article with videos and photos, written by the author of the Chronicles, can be found here.

 

Part of the reason behind the push for the new transporter has to do with the reconstruction of the Europabrücke. The 1971 bridge is scheduled to be replaced beginning in 2018 to accomodate six lanes of traffic along Motorway 7 between Hamburg and Denmark via Flensburg. The project will be conducted in phases with one half of the new span being built alongside the old span, followed by the demolition and replacement of the old span once traffic shifts onto the portion of the constructed new span and finally the construction of the new approaches and the widening of the motorway once the other portion of the new span is constructed and open to traffic. It’s expected to take eight years to build.  More on that bridge as well as other structures along the Grand Canal can be found in an SHZ article here and in the Chronicles here.

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Ship rams transport ferry at Rendsburg High Bridge

Rendsburg High Bridge in Rendsburg, Germany Photo taken by the author in April 2011
Rendsburg High Bridge in Rendsburg, Germany Photo taken by the author in April 2011

Substantial Damage to the Ferry; Two people injured

RENDSBURG, GERMANY-  A key crossing in Schleswig-Holstein spanning a key waterway between the Baltic and North Seas came to a standstill this morning, as a ship heading westward along the Baltic-North Sea Canal slammed into the transporter ferry of the Rendsburg High Bridge. The incident occurred at 6:39am Berlin time, where a large ship did not stop for the ferry in time, causing a collision. A video shown below sees how the ferry swung like a pendulum after the ship hit it and moved on.

Two people- the operator and a passenger were injured in the collision, the former was transported to a nearby hospital with serious injuries, according to SHZ News. The bridge and canal were both closed down to traffic and will remain closed until further notice. According to the Deutsche Bahn, the railroad line connecting Flensburg and Hamburg, which crosses the cantilever truss part of the bridge has been closed down until bridge inspectors can determine how the collision affected the bridge decking, how much damage was caused, and when the bridge can reopen. The line carries regional and international train services going through Flensburg to Denmark.  The passengers heading north are asked to go through Kiel from Neumünster enroute to Flensburg, as well as in the opposite direction. Because the ferry was misaligned, construction crews, according to reports by Radio Schleswig-Holstein (RSH),  will need to realign it before moving it to the north shore of the canal. The ferry has substantial damage to the housing and truss structure, as seen by the photos. It is unknown when the canal will be reopened and when the ferry will be operational again. The ferry was the key link between Rendsburg and the southern suburb of Alsdorf. A detour is being planned until the ferry can be fixed.

The Rendsburg High Bridge is the only bridge in the world that has a bridge span serving traffic that also carries a transporter ferry. The transporter is one of only eight left in the world that is functional.  It is the second bridge behind the Hastings Spiral Bridge in Minnesota that has a loop approach span, which encircles much of Rendsburg’s neighborhood. Built by Friedrich Voss in 1913, the bridge is a national landmark and has received various awards on the national and international levels. A detailed article about the bridge can be found here along with videos of the bridge filmed by the author during his visit in 2011. The Bridgehunter’s Chronicles, along with sister column the Flensburg Files will keep you informed on the latest with the bridge.

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Mystery Bridge Nr. 55: An Unusual Covered Bridge in New Hampshire

All photos courtesy of Scott Wagner
All photos courtesy of Scott Wagner

The next Mystery Bridge takes us to New Hampshire. We have read and heard of many stories of the Granite State losing dozens of historic bridges because of their being neglected by the local and state governments, including the Boscawen Bridge and this year the Sewall Falls Crossing. We’ve also read about the state priding themselves of their covered bridges, which are both loved and hated at the same time by many pontists.

Yet this mystery bridge brings metal and wood together, not to mention the covered bridge and metal truss bridge lovers. Located over a railroad bridge along Lakeside Avenue between Tower Street and Foster Avenue in Weirs Beach in Belknap County, this bridge presents an unusual truss design that is almost never seen nowadays. The bridge features a metal deck truss design in a shape of a Kingpost built on an incline. The outer portion has a 40° angle, whereas the inner portion has an obtruse triangular shape that is subdivided. Furthermore, the longest diagonal beam between the center span and the pier has a slight bent where the support beam meets. Looking at the trusses more closely, one can see that the connections are riveted, this putting the construction date up to the time after 1900, the time when riveted truss bridges were being introduced and proliferated with the standardization programs introduced by the states’ highway departments.

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The covered portion of the bridge in the center span features a pavillion with a half cylindrical roof colored in blue. The roof is supported by four iron piers, one in each corner and that are ornamental at the railing and where the columns meet the roof. The steps appear to be made of wood.

The bridge serves as the entrance to the  Winnipesaukee Marketplace, yet it is unknown whether the bridge was built at the same time as the historic building, or if the bridge existed well before that. It is known that this bridge presents some similarities to another bridge in Germany, the Bridge of Friendship at the German-Danish border north of Flensburg, although the trusses for that bridge is not as advanced in appearance as this bridge at Weirs Beach. Plus the roadway of the bridge in Flensburg is straight, unlike the roadway of the New Hampshire bridge and its half-octagonal look. The Bridge of Friendship was built in 1920 and was renovated in 2004.

The Bridge of Friendship at the German-Danish border north of  Flensburg. Photo taken in 2011
The Bridge of Friendship at the German-Danish border north of Flensburg. Photo taken in 2011

This leads to the questions of when the bridge at Weirs Beach was constructed- whether it was at the same time as the market place or earlier- and who was the mastermind behind this unique bridge design. Why build it over the railroad tracks when trains passed through on a regular basis 60 years ago and why not build a tunnel underneath? These questions have yet to be solved. Can you help?

Post your thoughts in the comment section here, as well as those in the Chronicle’s facebook pages and the Bridges page, where you can see more photos of the bridge taken by Scott Wagner (who is to be thanked for allowing use of the pics). Your thoughts and stories/history behind the bridge will be much useful in solving this mystery.

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