Showdown at Fehmarn

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The Beltretter Petition Drive at the Burg Market Square. Photo taken in August 2016

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Petition Drive to Stop the Construction of the Tunnel at Puttgarden in Full Gear; Discussion about the Fehmarn Bridge’s Future is on.

BURG/ FEHMARN- For the second time in three years, I had a chance to take a trip to the German Island of Fehmarn, located between Denmark and the state of Schleswig-Holstein, connected by the Migratory Route Highway connecting Copenhagen and Hamburg. Astonished by its beauty and the hospitality the people there gave us our last time, for my family and me, which also includes a friend of ours and her daughter, Fehmarn appears to be the place to go to relax, swim, run along the coast with the wind in our faces and bike to our favorite places for fish with fried potatoes Holstein style.

Yet on this trip it was totally different. Different in a way that the inhabitants of the island are divided over a mega-project that is coming to cross the island- the noise that is comparable to the noise one see along the Migratory Route, which seemed to have increased since our last visit. When visiting the state of Schleswig-Holstein, especially in the eastern part, one will see a blue X every second house along with its slogan, a Christmas light set depicting the Fehmarn Bridge at every fourth house, and this van with the Belt Retter slogan on there, lined up with hundreds of people talking to representatives of the group fighting to stop the project from happening, and signing petitions in the process.  The scene is getting brighter and bluer as the weeks come along….

…..and for a good reason!

Since my visit in 2014, I’ve been covering the events on Fehmarn, which involved not only the island’s future, but also that of the Fehmarn Bridge. To recap on the situation, the Danish Government have been cooperating with the German authorities regarding the construction of the multi-track/lane tunnel connecting Puttgarden (GER) and Rodby (DK), thus eliminating the need for ferry service. The tunnel would feature two tracks accomodating long-distance trains as well as six lanes of motorway traffic, creating a total width of one kilometer including the property acquisitions. At 20 km, it would be touted as the longest tunnel in the world that would serve automobile traffic. At the same time, German government authorities in Berlin and Kiel as well as the German Railways are working together for a new bridge on the south end, spanning the Fehmarn Sound- replacing the island’s iconic span which is the first of its kind ever built.  At the moment, transportation authorities have deemed the 1963 bridge to be functionally obsolete and at the end of its useful life. According to the latest reports from LN-News in Luebeck, planning is in the works to have a new iconic span resembling the Golden Gate Bridge to be discussed and possibly voted on. If approved, construction could start in 2018 and be finished in 10 years.

The current situation during the visit:

The Belt Retter movement has been gaining steam in the past weeks, with organizers and supporters collecting signatures and letters of petitions in much of Schleswig-Holstein- in particular, the eastern half and of course, Fehmarn Island itself. Tens of thousands of signatures have been collected online, as well as in person at the markets and other events. I was lucky to stop at the Belt Retter site at the market square in Burg during our visit to talk to the representatives there, and get some information on the latest with the Puttgarden-Rodby Tunnel (aka Belt Tunnel). The Danish government, which has been keen on moving forward with the project, had previously rejected an earlier proposal for the tunnel last year because of approximately 249 errors in the design and concept, according to officials of the organisation I talked to at the market. After reworking the project, a new proposal was submitted back in June by the coordinators of the project, LBV Luebeck and Femmern A/S, and now the clock is ticking on the part of the locals, the Belt Retter organisation and all other parties opposed to the plan, who had previously petitioned to stop the first draft and succeeded last year. Between now and August 26th, you have an opportunity to submit your petition online or through contact with the representatives of Belt Retter, who will then forward that onto a committee that will feature representatives of the tunnel project, environmental and legal experts, local, regional and state representatives and others involved with the project, who will review it and take further measures. Possible legal measures, such as lawsuits and court order injunctions are on the table should it become a necessity.

Attempts are also being made regarding ways to preserve the Fehmarn Bridge. Rehabilitating the bridge for continual use has been ruled out because of the cost intensitity, but also because it is predicted that the bridge’s lifespan would be prolonged by only 30 years. However, such rehabilitation techniques have been tried on several bridges made of steel, including the steel wiring that is also found on the Fehmarn Bridge. The findings: such rehabilitation can prolong the life of a bridge by up to a century, counting maintenance and other essentials. Already done was the Bay Bridge and (also) the Golden Gate Bridge in San Francisco, this is also being conducted on the George Washington Bridge in New York City, built in 1938 under Swiss Engineer Othmar H. Ammann. Crying wolf over the potential failure of the bridge, as was stated by authorities of the government in Berlin and the German railways, the issues of rust, especially seen by the author while revisiting the bridge this year is only minor. Bridge rehabilitation experts would also agree that rehabilitation would be cost effective, saving taxpayer money by up to half the cost for a new bridge. In other words, and as I signed my petition against the project, I even noted, the movement to stop this mega-project with the tunnel should also include rehabilitating the Fehmarn Bridge.

Opinions are split down the middle among those who are vehemently against the project because of the negative environmental and economic impact as well as those involving tourism and culture and those who are in favor because of the need to modernize the infrastructure and bring in more tourism. It can even be found with the two different stickers at a souvenir shop at Suedstrand in Burgtiefe with the blue X and green check marks, the latter being for the project. Protests from different factors, including the Scandlines (which operates the ferry between Puttgarden and Rodby) have increased loudly in numbers, opposing the entire project. While those supporting the project say that it is a necessity and will come anyway, the Danes are becoming more and more sceptical of the tunnel concept because of the exploding costs for surveys, legal issues and the redesigning of the system. Many have joined the movement on the German side, which has increased tremendously since my last visit.  While it is expected that the construction of the tunnel is to begin in 2020 and last 10 years, should the petition become a success for the second time, it might derail the entire project, putting it on ice indefinitely.

And with that, hopefully in the eyes of locals and people attached to Fehmarn, a return to normalcy which includes accessing the island by two-lane traffic or ferry, coaxing passers-by into stopping on the island for a visit and vacation. This is something you cannot do with a mega-project that would cut the island into two if proponents have their way.

Do you want to stop the project, click here to read the information and sign the petition. Contact details are available if you need further information. The information is in German, but you can talk to someone with English or Danish knowledge if you have any questions. It takes 2-4 minutes to do and consists of multiple choice questions that are user friendly.  If you’re still not convinced that the project cannot be stopped, go to the wordpress version of the Flensburg Files. There, you can click on the gallery with pics of the places visited this year with some comments on my part.

Checkout the articles written about the Fehmarn Bridge Situation including the bridge, by clicking here, here and here.

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2015 Ammann Awards: The Author has some bridge stories to tell

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To start off this new year, there are some good news as well as some bad news. First the bad news: The deadline for entries for the 2015 Ammann Awards has been pushed back again for the last time. This time the 10th of January at 12:00am Central Standard Time (January 11th at 7:00am Central European Time) is the absolute deadline for all entries, including that for Best Photo, Lifetime Achievement and other categories. Reason for the delay is the low number of entries, much of that has to do with the weather disaster of biblical proportions in the United States and Great Britain, which has kept many away from the cameras and forced many to fill sandbags. The the voting process will proceed as planned with the winners being announced at the end of this month.

The good news: The author has enough candidates and stories to justify announcing his choices for 2015- the first to be announced before the actual Ammann Awards presentations but one that should keep the interest in historic bridges running sky high, especially before the main course. In other words, the author is serving his appetizers right now to keep the readers and candidates hungry for more bridge stuff. 😉

So here is our first appetizer: The Biggest Bonehead Story

Photo taken by Tony Dillon

USA:

Truck Destroys Gospel Street Bridge in Paoli, Indiana- Ever since Christmas Day, this story has been the hottest topic in the media, even breaking records of the number of post clicks on the Chronicles. A 23-year-old woman, who claimed to be Amish, drives a 30-ton truck full of drinking water across the 1880 Cleveland Bridge and Iron Company structure that was only able to carry 6 tons. Naturally, the bridge gave in, yet the excuses the driver brought up became more and more incredulable: 1. I just received my driver’s license, 2. I couldn’t turn around or find an alternative so I took the chance, and 3. (Most outrageous): I didn’t know how many pounds equaled six tons.

Yet the question remains, which was more incredulable: The incident or the consequence of the incident: a mere $135 fine for crossing the light-weight bridge, destroying it in the process?

International:

Viaduct Collapses in Sicily- 2015 was not a good year for bridges outside of the USA, for several key (historic) crossings have met their fate or are about to due to human error. A temporary pedestrian bridge in Johannesburg (South Africa) falls onto the motorway crushing two cars. A pedestrian suspension bridge in New Zealand breaks a cable, causing the decking to twist and send hikers into the water.  Fortunately, no casualties. Both incidents happened in October. The highest glass bridge in the world, located in China, is cracking even though the government says it is safe.

But this bridge collapse on the island of Sicily, which happened in January, was a scandal! The Scorciavacche Viaduct near Palermo was completed in December 2014, three months earlier than scheduled, only for it to collapse partially on January 5th, 10 days after its opening! While no one was hurt, the collapse sparked a political outcry as the multi-million Euro bridge was part of the 200 million Euro motorway project, and as a consequence, officials prompted an investigation into the cause of the bridge. The construction company, which claimed that the accident was caused by “substinence,” tried shooting down the accusations, claiming the accident was overexaggerated. Makes the reader wonder if they tried covering up a possible design flaw, combined with human error, which could have caused the collapse. If so, then they have the (now jailed) Captain of the capsized Costa Concordia to thank, for like the ship that has been towed away and scrapped, the bridge met the same fate. Lesson for the wise: More time means better results. Check your work before opening it to others.

 

 

Best Historic Bridge Find:

While the author stayed out of the US for all of 2015 and focused his interesting findings on European soil, other bridge colleagues have found some bridges that had been either considered gone or had never been heard of before. One of these colleagues from Minnesota happened to find one that is still standing! 🙂

 

USA:

Bridge L-1297 in Clearwater County, Minnesota-

According to records by the Minnesota Historical Society, the Schonemann Park Bridge, located south of Luverne in Rock County, is the only example of a Waddell kingpost truss bridge left standing in Minnesota. This 1912 bridge is now on the National Register of Historic Places.

According to the Minnesota Department of Transportation, Bridge L-1297, which spans the Clearwater River near Gronvich in Clearwater, is the OTHER Waddell kingpost pony truss bridge that is still standing. Its markings matches exactly that of its Schonemann counterpart. Although there is no concrete evidence of when it was built and by whom, Pete Wilson, who found it by chance and addressed it to the Chronicles, mentioned that it was likely that it was built between 1905 and 1910 by the Hewett family, which built the bridge at Luverne. In either case, it is alive, standing albeit as a private crossing, and should be considered for the National Register. Does anybody else agree? 🙂

International:

The Bridges of Zeitz, Germany

It is rare to find a cluster of historic bridges that are seldomly mentioned in any history books or bridge inventory. During a bike tour through eastern Thuringia in March, I happened to find a treasure in the hills: A dozen historic bridges within a 10 km radius, half of which are in the city of 29,000 inhabitants, including the ornamental Moritzburg Pavillion Bridge located on the east end of town. Highly recommended the next time you pass through the area. These bridges will be profiled further in the coming year because of their aesthetic and historic value, which makes the town, resembling an East German bygone era, more attractive. Check them out! 🙂

 

Spectacular Disasters:

Flooding and Fires dominated the headlines as Mother Nature was not to kind to the areas affected, thus they were flooded, destroying historic bridges in the path. If there was no flooding, there were dry spells prompting fires that burned down everything touched. While there were several examples of historic bridges destroyed by nature, the author has chosen two that standout the most, namely because they were filmed, plus two runners-up in the international category. Fortunately for the bridge chosen in the US category, there is somewhat of a happy ending.

Photo by James MacCray

USA:

Full Throttle Saloon Fire-  Only a few weeks after celebrating the 75th anniversary of the Motorcycle Rally at the World’s largest saloon, the Full Throttle Saloon was destroyed by a massive fire on September 8th. Two of the historic bridges, relocated here to serve as overlook platforms and stages, were damaged by the blaze with the bridge decking being completely burned away. While the saloon was considered a total loss, bar owner Michael Ballard is planning on rebuilding the bar complex and has already lined up concert events including the upcoming Motorcycle Rally in August. More on how you can help rebuild here. Whether the bridges will be part of the plan is unclear, but given the effort to bring in the structure, it is likely that they will be kept and be part of the project as well. More on the project will follow, but things are really looking up for bikers and bridge lovers alike. 🙂

 

International:

300-year old arch bridge washed out by flooding-

While there was a three-way tie for spectacular natural disasters done to the historic bridges on the international front, this concrete arch bridge in Tadcaster in the UK stands out the most. The bridge collapsed on December 29th as floodwaters raged throughout much of the northern part of Great Britain. It was one of dozens of bridges that were either severely damaged or destroyed during the worst flooding on record. The saddest part was not the video on how the bridge fell apart bit by bit, but the bridge was over 300 years old. Demolition and replacement of the bridge is expected to commence at the earliest at the end of this year once the damages are assessed and the clean-up efforts are under way.

Runners-up:

Coach takes a swim under a culvert in Brazil:

Two runners-up in this category also have to do with bridge washouts due to flooding. One of them is this culvert wash-out in Brazil. A video submitted to the French magazine LeMonde shows what can happen if engineers choose a culvert over a replacement bridge, as this coach sank into the raging creek, went through the culvert and swam away! :-O Fortunately all the passengers evacuated prior to the disaster, however, it serves as a warning to all who wish to cut cost by choosing a culvert over a new bridge- you better know what you are getting into, especially after watching the video below.

 

Massive Panic as Bridge is washed out in India-

The other runner-up takes us to the city of Chennai in India, where flash flooding wreaked havoc throughout the city. At this bridge, the pier of a concrete bridge gave way as a large wave cut up the crossing in seconds! Massive panic occurred, as seen in the video seen below:

 

 

Dumbest Reason to destroy a historic bridge:

The final category for this year’s Author’s Choice Award goes to the people whose irrational decision-making triggered the (planned) destruction of historic bridges. This year’s candidates features two familiar names that are on the chopping block unless measures on a private scale are undertaken to stop the wrecking ball. One of the bridges is an iconic landmark that is only 53 years old.

Overview of the slue, approach and main spans of the BB Comer Bridge. Photo taken by David Kennamer
Overview of the slue, approach and main spans of the BB Comer Bridge. Photo taken by David Kennamer

USA:

BB Comer Bridge in Alabama- Three years of efforts to raise awareness to a vintage cantilever bridge went up in smoke on November 14th, when county officials not only rejected the notion for a referendum on saving the BB Comer Bridge in Scotsboro, but also turned down any calls for the matter to be brought up for all time to come. While the organization promoting the preservation of the bridge claimed that the city and Jackson County would not need to pay for the maintenance of the bridge, officials were not sold on the idea of having the bridge become a theme park, which would have been a win-win situation as far as producing funds for the tourism industry is concerned. Instead, behind closed doors, the contract was signed off to convert the 1930 bridge into scrap metal, giving into the value of the commodity. Talk about short-sightedness and wrist slitting there!

 

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International:

Fehmarn Bridge to come down- In an effort to push through the Migratory Freeway through Fehmarn Island and down the throats of opposing residents, the German Railways condemned the world’s first basket weave tied arch bridge, built in 1963 to connect the island with the German state of Schleswig-Holstein. The official reason was too much rust and any rehabilitation would prolong the bridge’s life by only 20 years- highly disputable among the preservationists and civil engineers given the number of concrete examples of rehabilitated bridges lasting 50+ years. Yet many locals believe that the German Railways is pushing for the bridge to be removed in favor of its own railroad crossing that would carry Fernzüge from Hamburg to Copenhagen, eliminating the ferry service between Puttgarten and Rodby in Denmark. The fight however is far from over as the campaign to save the island and its cherished architectural work is being taken to the national level, most likely going as far as Brussles if necessary. In addition, lack of funding and support on the Danish side is delaying the tunnel project, threatening the entire motorway-bridge-tunnel project to derail. If this happens, then the next step is what to do with the Fehmarn Bridge in terms of prolonging its life. The bridge is in the running for Bridge of the Year for the 2015 Ammann Awards for the second year in a row, after finishing a distant second last year.

 

AND NOW THE VOTING PROCESS AND RESULTS OF THE 2015 AMMANN AWARDS, WHICH WILL BEGIN STARTING JANUARY 11th, AS SOON AS THE DEADLINE FOR ALL ENTRIES PASSES. HURRY TO ENTER YOUR PHOTOS, BRIDGES, AND PERSONS DESERVING HONORS BEFORE IT’S TOO LATE!!!!

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Øresund Bridge

Oresund Bridge

Author’s Note: This bridge is part of the series on the Bridges of Copenhagen, which you can click here for a guide to the bridges worth visiting, even by bike.

7.5 kilometers long, connecting Copenhagen with Malmö in Sweden, the Øresund Bridge, judging from a photographer’s point of view, may look like the European version of “The Bridge to Nowhere,” a pun that was first used in Alaska, thanks to Sarah Palin’s bill to build a bridge to an island in the Pacific. The Øresund Strait, which connects the North and Baltic Seas, is one of the most treacherous bodies of water in the world, where two-thirds of the year on average brings forth either fog, storms, high winds or even a combination of the three. Upon my visit in 2011, the strait was so foggy that one can barely see the bridge, as seen from the town of Dragør. Furthermore, despite the warm humid August weather, steam was coming out of the water, approaching the shores, as seen below:

Oresund Bridge 2

Yet, travelling across the bridge, which features a tunnel on the Danish side, a tall cable-stayed suspension bridge, and a double-decker featuring the upper level for cars and lower level for rail traffic, is an experience every bridge lover and tourist should experience once in a lifetime. I had a chance to take a ride across the bridge by taxi, going to Malmö. And despite a steep cost for the 15 kilometer trip across the now 15-year old bridge, the trip was well worth it, as seen below:

But how the bridge was built has a history of its own, which featured many delays because of hidden bombs, broken machinery because of drilling attempts, high winds, construction accidents, and other items. But how the Danish and Swedish engineers and builders managed to construct this bridge within a given time span, and make the sleak structure elegant and a record breaker can be found through a documentary below as well as a text, which you can click on here:

From an author’s perspective, crossing the bridge and seeing the view of the strait was like a Trans-Atlantic flight: it was nothing but water for the 10 minutes I went across. Yet going through the really tall, cable-stayed towers, lit up at night, brought forth awe in a way that so many people, who built the bridge, had risked their lives to accomplish not just a feat, but the feat. The feat was not only connecting Denmark and Sweden, nor was it connecting Europe from Scandanavia to the Mediterranean Sea. It was the ability to connect lands from hundreds of kilometers away. Since its opening in 1999, at least 40 crossings longer than this one have been added to a world map that has gotten smaller by the year. And while most of them have originated from China, more ambitious projects are surely in the works, including the Bering Strait crossing and possibly connecting North America with Europe over the Atlantic. These may take a generation to complete, but the Øresund Bridge shows clearly that anything is possible as far as bridge construction is concerned.

Oresund Bridge 3

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Copenhagenization and Bridges

In the US, when it comes to bike trails and  bridges, they go together like bread and butter, for there are numerous examples of trails in the country where one important bridge is included.  There are Rails to Trails where former rail lines are converted into bike trails and include many iron and steel bridges in the process, like the Katy Trail, which connects St. Charles and Booneville in Missouri or the Cowboy Trail in northern Nebraska.  There are those, like the Wabash-Erie Canal Trail near Delphi in Indiana, where historic bridges are used as crossings- many of which are imported from other locations that are desolate and whose roads are no longer used, so that they have a new lease in life, like it was the case with the Gilmore Bridge, one of two Stearns through truss bridges left in the country.  And there are cases where either mail order bridges consisting of welded steel bridges are brought in to serve as crossings either because they were affordable or in some cases they replaced the historic bridges that were either deemed unsafe and had to be removed or collapsed because of disaster. The Horn’s Ferry Bridge in Marion County, Iowa (which a later article will explain about its history) is an example of such a case.

When cycling in Copenhagen, bridges and cycles go together like bread and butter but in a different fashion. As mentioned in the Flensburg Files article on Copenhagenization (please refer to the article by clicking here), Copenhagenization refers to the establishment of bike trail networks in a city at the expense of the automobile in an attempt to reduce carbon dioxide emissions, which has contributed a great deal to global warming. This concept consists of including bike lanes on every main street- a concept known as sharing the road, as well as establishing bike routes going through green areas and parts of the city where one cannot reach by car. Ever since the 1950s when the concept was first developed, one will find bike routes virtually everywhere in the city, and more are being established to accommodate more bikers who seem to embrace the concept of commuting on a regular basis as a way of life in Copenhagen.

With Copenhagenization come the bridges that serve the canals and other deep ravines in and around the city.  Of the four dozen or so bridges that serve the city and the region of Kastrup), all but a couple bridges are biker friendly- meaning space is made to accommodate those pedaling those two-wheelers, whose history and success dates back to the 1780s when the first bike (a walk-a bike because there were no pedals on it) was invented. In a couple cases, individual bridges were built just for bikes alone to make the trip through Copenhagen as hassle-free as possible.  It is no surprise that city planners plan their bridges to serve two key purposes: functionality and conforming to the city aesthetically.

In Copenhagen (and in general, Denmark), the bridge landscape consists mainly of bascule bridges and as well as various forms of deck arches, regardless of the materials used for constructing them (some were built using brick while the rest were made of steel). One will rarely see a truss bridge in site. In fact, one can see a Town Lattice pony truss bridge spanning a lake at Norreport Park on the north end of the city center.  The majority of the structures were completed in the 1930s and 40s, even though there are some exceptions to the rule- these will be presented below.  However, recent developments have indicated that with the increase of cyclists roaming the streets of Copenhagen, the need for bridges to cross the bodies of water surrounding Copenhagen and the ravines consisting of small valleys- some filled with rail lines entering the city from the west and south.  In the past decade alone, as many as a dozen bridges have been built in Copenhagen, most of them located in the southern and eastern ends of the city in places like Christiania, Ørestad, and Kastrup, where much of the area has been developed along the water front. While the main purpose of these new bridges still is to function as a means of transporting people from point A to point B, many bridge engineers have come up with fashionable ways to make the structures appealing to those who either cross or go past them. While many pontists would consider these bridges too modern and bland for their taste, others have embraced them as a symbol of the city and its pride in encouraging people to use the bike instead of the car to get around.

To please both parties, I have chosen  five of the best historic bridges and five of the must see bridges that are part of the Copenhagenization process. Each one will feature a brief summary as well as a photo to provide a tourist with a chance to see them from the eyes of the bridge photographer and perhaps plan a visit to them while in Copenhagen. Please note that the Øresund Bridge is not included in this article for a separate article will be presented on this structure at a later time. For each category, there will be two that will be mentioned honorably with a couple remarks about them.

Jason’s Pics for Copenhagen’s Historic Bridges

Stormbroen Bridge

Stormbroen Bridge

Location: Slotsholmen Canal between Stormgade (near Copenhagen’s city hall) and Vindebrogade

Built: 1650/1681; rehabilitated in 1918

Description: One-span closed spandrel brick arch bridge with ornamental railings.

Bridgehunter’s comments: While the inscriptions on the concrete railings indicated that the bridge was constructed in 1650, literary sources pointed the date of 1681 as the time of its construction. Nevertheless, the bridge is perhaps the oldest bridge left in Copenhagen that is still in service.  The bridge was the main show for the Swedish Army’s attack on the people of Copenhagen in 1659. Despite gaining ground on the city, the Danish eventually gained the upper hand and drove the Swedes back over the straight, leaving 2000 dead in the process. Today, this bridge still serves traffic but in a small neighborhood east of the city center. While it may be a forgotten bridge to many, this structure still holds a lot of history for those who know about it, even when talking about it over a cup of cappuccino at the cafés located nearby or passing through it by boat.

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 Højbro Bridge

Location: Canal connecting the inner harbor between Højbro Square and Slotsholmen

Built: 1878

Description: Closed spandrel wrought iron bridge with ornamental design

Bridgehunter’s comments: The Højbro is the most ornamental of the bridges serving the inner city of Copenhagen. With its lion head serving as the keystone (center point of the main span) and its colors of gold and grey, the bridge is largely noticeable by those either passing under it by boat or past or even over it by foot or by bike.

This the last of the works of Vilhelm Dahlerup, who was a prominent bridge builder in Denmark and given the recent renovation and its ability to handle multiple traffic, this bridge will remain over the canal for years to come.

Langenbro Bridge1

 Langebro Bascule Bridge

Location: Section of Copenhagen Inner Harbour carrying H.C. Andersen Blvd. and Amager Blvd. between Zealand and Amager respectively

Built: 1954 (present structure) replacing a temporary bridge built in 1930 to replace a 1903 swing bridge. Origin of the structure dates back to 1886.

Dimensions: 250 meters long with a vertical clearance of 7 meters above water

Description: Bascule Bridge (with open spandrel arch design made of steel) with closed spandrel arch approaches

Bridgehunter’s Remarks: The Langebro is perhaps the most popular of Copenhagen’s bridges per say, as it was featured in many fine arts pieces. It was a play written by Hans Christian Andersen, who was also famous for Mother Goose and other famous children’s stories. It was a scene of an attack by a reptile-like monster in a film made in 1961 entitled Reptilicus and the bridge was left in ruins as a result. And because the original bridge was relocated from London to Lake Havasu City, Arizona in 1969, the Langebro was featured as the replacement of the London Bridge in the 1971 film Geordie (the setting was also shifted to Copenhagen instead of London).  From the point of view of an architect, the bridge is the largest in Copenhagen and is one that is a must see, not only in terms of its functionality as a bascule bridge, but also in terms of its appearance with its red brick arch spans and the artwork featured along the canal next to the bridge. While it is probably inappropriate to use this bridge as an imitation of the London Bridge in Georgia, one can tell that this bridge still looks like it was built five years ago instead of almost 60 years ago and will most likely stay in service for a very long time, with a little bit of maintenance work.

Knippelsbro Bascule Bridge

 Knippelsbro Bascule Bridge

Location: Copenhagen Inner Harbor between Slotsholmen and Christiania

Built: 1937 as the fifth bridge built at the location. Designed by Kaj Gottlob.  First bridge built in 1620 and renewed 1816, 1869, 1908 and replaced with an interim bridge in 1934

Dimension: 115 meters long and 27 meters wide

Description: Bascule Bridge (span is a deck steel cantilever) with steel beam (north side) and closed spandrel arch (south side) approaches

Bridgehunter’s Remarks:  The Knippelsbro is the shorter of the two vehicular bridges spanning the Inner Harbor but is the shorter and most unique in comparison to its counterpart, the Langebro. While the bascule span looks similar to the Tower Bridge in London in terms of design and function (the two half spans open in opposite directions to allow ships to pass through), the north approach span is unique as the roadway is supported by steel cylindrical columns, which serves as hydraulic support as it lowers with the weight of traffic, making the roadway move vertically; especially when the bascule span lifts to allow ships to pass through.

This is extremely rare for a bridge, even though engineers are either building or even retrofitting many of the bridges to avoid the risk of collapse due to weight or even natural occurrences, such as an earthquake.  Veering away from the technical aspects of this bridge, the bridge dates as far back as nearly 400 years, when it was first known as the Great Amager Bridge, but had its name changed two additional times until the city settled for Knippelsbro, named after Hans Knip, who became caretaker of the bridge in 1641, collecting tolls from passersby and maintaining the structure’s upkeep. His house was located nearby and was named Knippenshus and the bridge was named Knippensbro, although it is unknown when and even more so why the people of Copenhagen embraced the official name of Knippelsbro.

Marmorbroen

Marmorbroen (Marble Bridge)

Location: Frederiksholm- Canal between Christiansborg Riding Ground Complex and Ny Vestergard which extends to Dante Plads via Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek

Built: 1745

Description: Two-span closed spandrel arch bridge constructed of sandstone.

Bridgehunter’s Comments: The Marble Bridge is situated at the gate to the Danish palace and given its age and ornamentation that can be seen from the neighboring bridges, it definitely deserves its place in the royalty. The bridge is perhaps the second most ornamental bridge that can be found in the city and one that is a must see if you are by bike or by foot. It can be seen from  the bridges located on both sides of the structure.  However, given its wear and tear on the roadway (despite its cobblestone roadway, it is a rather bumpy ride across the structure) and black appearance on the ornamental designs, it would not be surprising if this bridge receives a cleansing so that it lasts another 350 years. Nevertheless, the bridge deserves to be in the top 5 because of its history and aesthetic appearance and how it conforms to the cityscape Copenhagen offers.

HONORABLY MENTIONED:

Holmens Bro:  Built in 1954, this single span closed spandrel arch bridge was constructed out of granite. Yet it was built to replace the bridge that was designed by Dahlerup and built in 1878. Given the fact that the present structure compromised the historic value of its predecessor and its age, it fell into this category, even though the bridge is worth mentioning and a few photos.

St. Anna's Bridge

St. Anna’s Bridge:   Spanning one of the canals going through Christiania, this bridge is one of the most forgotten of Copenhagen’s bridges, as it was first built in 1781 and redone again in 1883 and 1924. The brick arch design with some ornamentation on the railings is a real eye-catcher to the pontist and the age of the bridge and its setting makes a person feel like walking into Copenhagen’s past- say 200 years ago or so.

Christian IV’s Bro: Built in the early 1920s, this bridge is located to the south of Marble Bridge over the Frederiksholm Canal and represents an example of a steel stringer bridge built before the war. Many of these types were built throughout Denmark during the 1920s to replace the ageing wooden spans. This one had a predecessor as it was built using piers from either an iron or wooden bridge. The bridge was named after King Christian IV, who ruled Denmark from 1588 until his death in 1648. 

Sorterendebroen Arch Bridge:  Spanning the strait connecting Sydhavn and the channel leading to the Baltic Sea, this bridge is the longest fixed structure of its kind in Copenhagen and it definitely belongs to the top 10 of the longest spans (vehicular and non-vehicular) in the city. Its closed-spandrel concrete arch design can be seen from the railroad viaduct which carries the Øresundline to the airport and eventually across the Øresund-Strait to Sweden. The road that the bridge carries runs parallel and serves as a link to the suburbs surrounding the airport. While it is unknown when the bridge was actually built, judging by its structural condition, the bridge is probably at least 50 years old.  Nevertheless, it has been serving its purpose for a long time.

Kalvebobbroen Viaduct near Copenhagen Airport

Kalvebobbroen Viaduct: This is the second longest bridge in Copenhagen, behind the Øresund-Bridge, with a length of 8 km. The bridge was completed in 1987 and serves the E20 motorway, which tangents its way along the Baltic Sea Coast connecting the Kastrup region (and the airport) and the southern suburbs of Copenhagen. The bridge represents a classic example of how Danish civil engineers love to build bridges that are tall and long. After all, they need to connect one island to another.

   Jason’s Pics for Bridges and Copenhagenization:

Bryggebroen Bike Bridge

Bryggebroen Bike Bridge

Location:  Sydhavn (part of Copenhagen Inner Harbor) between Ørestad and Vesterport behind the Fisketorvet Shopping Center

Built: 2006 by Dissing and Weitling

Dimensions: 190 meters long and 5.5 meters wide

Description: Using traditional bridge type standards, the west half is cantilever deck and the east half is a beam span built on piers. Built completely of steel.

Bridgehunter’s Remarks:  For an innovative bridge engineer there is always a first when it comes to designing fancy bridges. This one was a first: a rather fancy design that fits with the modern landscape; especially in the area where it has been recently developed for accommodation and business purposes with lucid architecture- breaking the traditional designs that many architects prefer. Yet like the buildings that are using renewable energy resources and are supposed to be carbon neutral, the bridge has a unique functionality which one cannot really expect from a non-vehicular bridge.  The bridge is segregated where one lane is explicitly made for cyclist, the other for pedestrians only. This was designed for safety purposes so that the cyclists can cross the bridge with no delays while avoiding accidents involving pedestrians at the same time. It is unimaginable seeing such a bridge serve that purpose in the US and other places where a bridge is used for everyone including pedestrians and cyclists, but given the increased usage of bicycles and the expansion of bike trails especially in cities with more than 20,000 inhabitants, a plan for a bridge like this one may be in the cards 10 years down the road.

If one counts Sydhavn as part of Copenhagen’s Inner Harbor, then this bridge was the first one built in 52 years (the Langenbro was the last bridge built in 1954), but given the increase in the number of bikes in Copenhagen, this bridge will soon have company as other bridges are in the drafting phase waiting to be erected over the next 5-10 years.

Dybbølsbro Bridges

 Dybbølsbro Bridges

Location: Spanning the rail lines in Vesterport, linking the Fisketorvet Shopping Center and Kødbyen

Description:  Consists of two viaducts- both built of concrete and steel. One is used exclusively for automobiles and buses, the other for pedestrians and cyclists Both are 240 meters long.

Bridgehunter’s Remarks: Located not far from the Bryggebroen Bike Bridge at the north entrance to Copenhagen’s largest shopping center, this viaduct provides both the motorists as well as the cyclists with easy access to Copenhagen’s train station, which is about 5-10 minutes away pending on what form of transportation you use. Normally, one will find only one bridge whose outer lanes are reserved explicitly for cyclist and pedestrians. To a certain degree, one could imagine a historic bridge (be it arch or truss) being used exclusively for pedestrians while the modernized bridge serves vehicular traffic only. This modern but unique bridge is one of the rarest forms to be seen in Copenhagen not only because of its function but the fact that the viaduct is almost 1 km long and spans railways in a ravine that is approximately 20 meters deep. This duo viaduct is located at the north end of the  Fisketorvet Shopping Center, the largest mall in the Danish capital.

Teglværk Bridge

Teglværk Bridge

Location:  Over section of Sydhavn in Frederiksborg

Built: 2011

Dimensions: 97 meters long and 12 meters wide

Description: This bridge is best compared to a glass which is filled with a third of each liquid, starting with  the heaviest and ending with the lightest- like honey, jello and a fruit drink for example- and not being able to mix them together.  From a bird’s eye view, it looks like a cable-stayed bridge whose thick cables are supported by only one steel tower.  Seeing it up close and judging it by its side and oblique views, looks like a kingpost truss bridge with riveted connections. If that was the case, then it would be the rarest bridge in the world for the bridge type has long since been out of use, and in addition to that, most kingpost truss bridges built in the US and other places in the world consisted of pinned connections. There are only a few examples of those built using riveted connections today, like the Schoenemann Park Bridge in Luverne, Minnesota and the Waddell Kingpost through truss bridge located at English Landing Park in Parkville near Kansas City. Looking at it more closely and one will find by the appearance of hydraulics on the diagonal components, that this bridge is a drawbridge, spanning a section of Copenhagen’s west harbor and accommodating traffic in the newly developed region located just to the north and west of Ørestad.

This is a brand new bridge, as it was built earlier this year  and has not appeared on any of the Google or Bing Maps as of present.  But not to worry, it will appear the next time a bird’s eye view of Copenhagen is redone.  Link: http://www.e-architect.co.uk/copenhagen/teglvaerksbroen.htm

Ørestad Footbridge

 Ørestad Footbridge

Location: Over Sydhavn west of Ørestad

Built: ca. 2008

Dimensions: Unknown

Description:  To the taste of many bridge fans, this structure does not deserve to be recognized, as it is very original and bland in color. However, one must not judge a book by its cover when it comes to this steel beam bridge. Resembling a footbridge, this structure was built using the least amount of steel possible, making a person wonder how the bridge can survive extreme weather conditions, as well as numerous residents of Ørestad using it to get to the harbor from their houses. The bridge is also difficult to access as it is blocked off on the east side and access from the western edge is difficult, forcing the person to believe that the bridge is privately owned, which it probably is. By the same token however, one can get a good side view from its neighboring bridge, the Spaellandsbroen Bridge, which runs parallel to the railway and carries traffic to Kastrup.

Dyssebroen Bridge

Location: Stadsgraven between Christianshavn and Amager in Freetown Christiania

Built: 1998

Dimensions: 30 meters long and 2 meters wide

Description:  This bridge is an example of a wooden deck truss bridge, whose design comprises of a Kingpost design and whose material used for its construction was Douglas timber. The pedestrian and bicycle bridge is a replacement of an earlier wooden beam bridge built at the beginning of the 20th Century and was used for military traffic. Plans of restoring the bridge in the 1990s was scrapped when it was revealed through the dismantling process that rot was worse than anticipated. Ax and Kelle, a team of journeymen from Germany, spent a total of 2,500 hours over the course of three months building the new structure, using the piers from the old one, and making it accessible for cyclists and pedestrians.  While the columnist could not visit the bridge, a link with a picture of the 1998 structure is found below: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dyssebroen

HONORABLY MENTIONED:

Amagerbro Pedestrian Bridge–  Located over a major highway in the suburb of Amagerbro, this bridge is unique to the city of Copenhagen because of its two-sided steel arch design which tilts at a 135° angle outwards, similar to a butterfly’s wing. Completed in 2008, this pedestrian bridge has won many awards on a regional level because of its unique design, even though one will see many of these bridge types painting the European landscape. Link: https://bridgehunterschronicles.files.wordpress.com/2015/10/37001-9.jpg

The Bridges of Frederiksholm in Copenhagen

The Bridges of Frederiksholm– Known as the Danish version of Little Venice, these are a network of steel and wooden bridges connecting the apartments that exist- all over a body of water belonging to Sydhavn. While they may look bland to bridge enthusiasts, the bridges serve both pedestrians and vehicular traffic that drive in and out of one of the newest residential districts in Copenhagen- in existence since 2005.

Norreport Park Bridge

Nørreport Park Pedestrian Bridge– located at the center of the largest park in Copenhagen’s city center (located next to the train/metro station bearing the same name as the park itself), this bridge has a Town Lattice design built on steel towers and spans the center part of the lake. It is rare to see truss bridges in Denmark but even more so in Copenhagen itself as the city has at the most about 3-4 bridges of this kind overall, with the landscape consisting of beam, arch and bascule bridges. For those loving truss bridges, this 1800 structure is a beauty that is a must see while in Copenhagen. The pedestrian/ bike trail bridge is well-maintained and serves as one of the main attractions of the park.

The bridges in planning– In the next 10 years, as many as five new bridges will paint the cityscape of Copenhagen with the purpose of accommodating additional cyclists and pedestrians alike. As more people abandon the car for the bike, city planners have felt the need to make the city friendlier to these groups, while at the same time, focus on two bigger goals: make the city carbon neutral and make the city look really nice. Some of the bridges in planning include the following enclosed via links: http://www.orangesmile.com/ru/foto/top-bridges/harbor-concept-bridge-copenhagen.jpghttp://www.google.de/imgres?imgurl=http://www.inhabitat.com/wp-content/uploads/stevenhollcopenhagenbridge.jpg&imgrefurl=http://inhabitat.com/copenhagen-gateway-by-steven-holl/&usg=__FlbCQdRodbANQeC_0vH15FiGbOA=&h=336&w=537&sz=47&hl=de&start=0&zoom=1&tbnid=-xcTApw68e2EwM:&tbnh=139&tbnw=203&ei=1OmnTt1HpvnhBJ2R4CA&prev=/search%3Fq%3DBridges%2BCopenhagen%26um%3D1%26hl%3Dde%26sa%3DN%26biw%3D1152%26bih%3D773%26tbm%3Disch&um=1&itbs=1&iact=hc&vpx=258&vpy=160&dur=34&hovh=177&hovw=284&tx=195&ty=94&sig=111029160268588210672&page=1&ndsp=20&ved=1t:429,r:1,s:0

http://www.google.de/imgres?imgurl=http://www.metropolismag.com/pov/wp-content/uploads/2009/10/Butterflybridge-open-day_zoom-1024×441.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.metropolismag.com/pov/20091023/building-bridges&usg=__N3_8lldTBewKLAfOLDSXGDhPaGg=&h=441&w=1024&sz=123&hl=de&start=40&zoom=1&tbnid=C5hr4zTuL4p6HM:&tbnh=68&tbnw=159&ei=1OmnTt1HpvnhBJ2R4CA&prev=/search%3Fq%3DBridges%2BCopenhagen%26um%3D1%26hl%3Dde%26sa%3DN%26biw%3D1152%26bih%3D773%26tbm%3Disch&um=1&itbs=1&iact=rc&dur=338&sig=111029160268588210672&page=3&ndsp=24&ved=1t:429,r:14,s:40&tx=85&ty=24

Of the above-mentioned bridges presented here that people should see while in Copenhagen, there is one structure that stands out alone and has become the new symbol of the city and region. Construction lasted 9 years and despite the high costs, the bridge brought the city (and the country) and its next door neighbor together. In the next article on the Bridges of Copenhagen, we will look at the Øresund-Bridge.

Author’s Note: Please click on the flickr website for more pictures of Copenhagen’s bridges, here.

cropped-bhc-new-logo-jpeg.jpg

Copenhagenization and Bridges

In the US, when it comes to bike trails and  bridges, they go together like bread and butter, for there are numerous examples of trails in the country where one important bridge is included.  There are Rails to Trails where former rail lines are converted into bike trails and include many iron and steel bridges in the process, like the Katy Trail, which connects St. Charles and Booneville in Missouri or the Cowboy Trail in northern Nebraska.  There are those, like the Wabash-Erie Canal Trail near Delphi in Indiana, where historic bridges are used as crossings- many of which are imported from other locations that are desolate and whose roads are no longer used, so that they have a new lease in life, like it was the case with the Gilmore Bridge, one of two Stearns through truss bridges left in the country.  And there are cases where either mail order bridges consisting of welded steel bridges are brought in to serve as crossings either because they were affordable or in some cases they replaced the historic bridges that were either deemed unsafe and had to be removed or collapsed because of disaster. The Horn’s Ferry Bridge in Marion County, Iowa (which a later article will explain about its history) is an example of such a case.

When cycling in Copenhagen, bridges and cycles go together like bread and butter but in a different fashion. As mentioned in the Flensburg Files article on Copenhagenization (please refer to the article on this using this link:( http://flensburgerfiles.areavoices.com/2011/10/24/copenhagenization-the-contagion-that-could-change-the-way-we-think-of-bicycles/ ), Copenhagenization refers to the establishment of bike trail networks in a city at the expense of the automobile in an attempt to reduce carbon dioxide emissions, which has contributed a great deal to global warming. This concept consists of including bike lanes on every main street- a concept known as sharing the road, as well as establishing bike routes going through green areas and parts of the city where one cannot reach by car. Ever since the 1950s when the concept was first developed, one will find bike routes virtually everywhere in the city, and more are being established to accommodate more bikers who seem to embrace the concept of commuting on a regular basis as a way of life in Copenhagen.

With Copenhagenization come the bridges that serve the canals and other deep ravines in and around the city.  Of the four dozen or so bridges that serve the city and the region of Kastrup), all but a couple bridges are biker friendly- meaning space is made to accommodate those pedaling those two-wheelers, whose history and success dates back to the 1780s when the first bike (a walk-a bike because there were no pedals on it) was invented. In a couple cases, individual bridges were built just for bikes alone to make the trip through Copenhagen as hassle-free as possible.  It is no surprise that city planners plan their bridges to serve two key purposes: functionality and conforming to the city aesthetically.

In Copenhagen (and in general, Denmark), the bridge landscape consists mainly of bascule bridges and as well as various forms of deck arches, regardless of the materials used for constructing them (some were built using brick while the rest were made of steel). One will rarely see a truss bridge in site. In fact, one can see a Town Lattice pony truss bridge spanning a lake at Norreport Park on the north end of the city center.  The majority of the structures were completed in the 1930s and 40s, even though there are some exceptions to the rule- these will be presented below.  However, recent developments have indicated that with the increase of cyclists roaming the streets of Copenhagen, the need for bridges to cross the bodies of water surrounding Copenhagen and the ravines consisting of small valleys- some filled with rail lines entering the city from the west and south.  In the past decade alone, as many as a dozen bridges have been built in Copenhagen, most of them located in the southern and eastern ends of the city in places like Christiania, Ørestad, and Kastrup, where much of the area has been developed along the water front. While the main purpose of these new bridges still is to function as a means of transporting people from point A to point B, many bridge engineers have come up with fashionable ways to make the structures appealing to those who either cross or go past them. While many pontists would consider these bridges too modern and bland for their taste, others have embraced them as a symbol of the city and its pride in encouraging people to use the bike instead of the car to get around.

To please both parties, I have chosen  five of the best historic bridges and five of the must see bridges that are part of the Copenhagenization process. Each one will feature a brief summary as well as a photo to provide a tourist with a chance to see them from the eyes of the bridge photographer and perhaps plan a visit to them while in Copenhagen. Please note that the Øresund Bridge is not included in this article for a separate article will be presented on this structure at a later time. For each category, there will be two that will be mentioned honorably with a couple remarks about them.

Jason’s Pics for Copenhagen’s Historic Bridges

Stormbroen Bridge

Location: Slotsholmen Canal between Stormgade (near Copenhagen’s city hall) and Vindebrogade

Built: 1650/1681; rehabilitated in 1918

Description: One-span closed spandrel brick arch bridge with ornamental railings.

Bridgehunter’s comments: While the inscriptions on the concrete railings indicated that the bridge was constructed in 1650, literary sources pointed the date of 1681 as the time of its construction. Nevertheless, the bridge is perhaps the oldest bridge left in Copenhagen that is still in service.  The bridge was the main show for the Swedish Army’s attack on the people of Copenhagen in 1659. Despite gaining ground on the city, the Danish eventually gained the upper hand and drove the Swedes back over the straight, leaving 2000 dead in the process. Today, this bridge still serves traffic but in a small neighborhood east of the city center. While it may be a forgotten bridge to many, this structure still holds a lot of history for those who know about it, even when talking about it over a cup of cappuccino at the cafés located nearby or passing through it by boat.

 

 Højbro Bridge

Location: Canal connecting the inner harbor between Højbro Square and Slotsholmen

Built: 1878

Description: Closed spandrel wrought iron bridge with ornamental design

Bridgehunter’s comments: The Højbro is the most ornamental of the bridges serving the inner city of Copenhagen. With its lion head serving as the keystone (center point of the main span) and its colors of gold and grey, the bridge is largely noticeable by those either passing under it by boat or past or even over it by foot or by bike.

Close-up of the iron deck arch design

This the last of the works of Vilhelm Dahlerup, who was a prominent bridge builder in Denmark and given the recent renovation and its ability to handle multiple traffic, this bridge will remain over the canal for years to come.

 Langebro Bascule Bridge

Location: Section of Copenhagen Inner Harbour carrying H.C. Andersen Blvd. and Amager Blvd. between Zealand and Amager respectively

Built: 1954 (present structure) replacing a temporary bridge built in 1930 to replace a 1903 swing bridge. Origin of the structure dates back to 1886.

Dimensions: 250 meters long with a vertical clearance of 7 meters above water

Description: Bascule Bridge (with open spandrel arch design made of steel) with closed spandrel arch approaches

Bridgehunter’s Remarks: The Langebro is perhaps the most popular of Copenhagen’s bridges per say, as it was featured in many fine arts pieces. It was a play written by Hans Christian Andersen, who was also famous for Mother Goose and other famous children’s stories. It was a scene of an attack by a reptile-like monster in a film made in 1961 entitled Reptilicus and the bridge was left in ruins as a result. And because the original bridge was relocated from London to Lake Havasu City, Arizona in 1969, the Langebro was featured as the replacement of the London Bridge in the 1971 film Geordie (the setting was also shifted to Copenhagen instead of London).  From the point of view of an architect, the bridge is the largest in Copenhagen and is one that is a must see, not only in terms of its functionality as a bascule bridge, but also in terms of its appearance with its red brick arch spans and the artwork featured along the canal next to the bridge. While it is probably inappropriate to use this bridge as an imitation of the London Bridge in Georgia, one can tell that this bridge still looks like it was built five years ago instead of almost 60 years ago and will most likely stay in service for a very long time, with a little bit of maintenance work.

 Knippelsbro Bascule Bridge

Location: Copenhagen Inner Harbor between Slotsholmen and Christiania

Built: 1937 as the fifth bridge built at the location. Designed by Kaj Gottlob.  First bridge built in 1620 and renewed 1816, 1869, 1908 and replaced with an interim bridge in 1934

Dimension: 115 meters long and 27 meters wide

Description: Bascule Bridge (span is a deck steel cantilever) with steel beam (north side) and closed spandrel arch (south side) approaches

Bridgehunter’s Remarks:  The Knippelsbro is the shorter of the two vehicular bridges spanning the Inner Harbor but is the shorter and most unique in comparison to its counterpart, the Langebro. While the bascule span looks similar to the Tower Bridge in London in terms of design and function (the two half spans open in opposite directions to allow ships to pass through), the north approach span is unique as the roadway is supported by steel cylindrical columns, which serves as hydraulic support as it lowers with the weight of traffic, making the roadway move vertically; especially when the bascule span lifts to allow ships to pass through.

close-up of the north approach

This is extremely rare for a bridge, even though engineers are either building or even retrofitting many of the bridges to avoid the risk of collapse due to weight or even natural occurrences, such as an earthquake.  Veering away from the technical aspects of this bridge, the bridge dates as far back as nearly 400 years, when it was first known as the Great Amager Bridge, but had its name changed two additional times until the city settled for Knippelsbro, named after Hans Knip, who became caretaker of the bridge in 1641, collecting tolls from passersby and maintaining the structure’s upkeep. His house was located nearby and was named Knippenshus and the bridge was named Knippensbro, although it is unknown when and even more so why the people of Copenhagen embraced the official name of Knippelsbro.

 

Marmorbroen (Marble Bridge)

Location: Frederiksholm- Canal between Christiansborg Riding Ground Complex and Ny Vestergard which extends to Dante Plads via Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek

Built: 1745

Description: Two-span closed spandrel arch bridge constructed of sandstone.

Bridgehunter’s Comments: The Marble Bridge is situated at the gate to the Danish palace and given its age and ornamentation that can be seen from the neighboring bridges, it definitely deserves its place in the royalty. The bridge is perhaps the second most ornamental bridge that can be found in the city and one that is a must see if you are by bike or by foot. It can be seen from  the bridges located on both sides of the structure.  However, given its wear and tear on the roadway (despite its cobblestone roadway, it is a rather bumpy ride across the structure) and black appearance on the ornamental designs, it would not be surprising if this bridge receives a cleansing so that it lasts another 350 years. Nevertheless, the bridge deserves to be in the top 5 because of its history and aesthetic appearance and how it conforms to the cityscape Copenhagen offers.

 

HONORABLY MENTIONED:

Holmens Bro:  Built in 1954, this single span closed spandrel arch bridge was constructed out of granite. Yet it was built to replace the bridge that was designed by Dahlerup and built in 1878. Given the fact that the present structure compromised the historic value of its predecessor and its age, it fell into this category, even though the bridge is worth mentioning and a few photos.

  1. St. Anna’s Bridge:   Spanning one of the canals going through Christiania, this bridge is one of the most forgotten of Copenhagen’s bridges, as it was first built in 1781 and redone again in 1883 and 1924. The brick arch design with some ornamentation on the railings is a real eye-catcher to the pontist and the age of the bridge and its setting makes a person feel like walking into Copenhagen’s past- say 200 years ago or so.
  2. Christian IV’s Bro: Built in the early 1920s, this bridge is located to the south of Marble Bridge over the Frederiksholm Canal and represents an example of a steel stringer bridge built before the war. Many of these types were built throughout Denmark during the 1920s to replace the ageing wooden spans. This one had a predecessor as it was built using piers from either an iron or wooden bridge. The bridge was named after King Christian IV, who ruled Denmark from 1588 until his death in 1648. 
  3. Sorterendebroen Arch Bridge:  Spanning the strait connecting Sydhavn and the channel leading to the Baltic Sea, this bridge is the longest fixed structure of its kind in Copenhagen and it definitely belongs to the top 10 of the longest spans (vehicular and non-vehicular) in the city. Its closed-spandrel concrete arch design can be seen from the railroad viaduct which carries the Øresundline to the airport and eventually across the Øresund-Strait to Sweden. The road that the bridge carries runs parallel and serves as a link to the suburbs surrounding the airport. While it is unknown when the bridge was actually built, judging by its structural condition, the bridge is probably at least 50 years old.  Nevertheless, it has been serving its purpose for a long time. 
  4. Kalvebobbroen Viaduct: This is the second longest bridge in Copenhagen, behind the Øresund-Bridge, with a length of 8 km. The bridge was completed in 1987 and serves the E20 motorway, which tangents its way along the Baltic Sea Coast connecting the Kastrup region (and the airport) and the southern suburbs of Copenhagen. The bridge represents a classic example of how Danish civil engineers love to build bridges that are tall and long. After all, they need to connect one island to another.

   Jason’s Pics for Bridges and Copenhagenization:

Bryggebroen Bike Bridge

Location:  Sydhavn (part of Copenhagen Inner Harbor) between Ørestad and Vesterport behind the Fisketorvet Shopping Center

Built: 2006 by Dissing and Weitling

Dimensions: 190 meters long and 5.5 meters wide

Description: Using traditional bridge type standards, the west half is cantilever deck and the east half is a beam span built on piers. Built completely of steel.

Bridgehunter’s Remarks:  For an innovative bridge engineer there is always a first when it comes to designing fancy bridges. This one was a first: a rather fancy design that fits with the modern landscape; especially in the area where it has been recently developed for accommodation and business purposes with lucid architecture- breaking the traditional designs that many architects prefer. Yet like the buildings that are using renewable energy resources and are supposed to be carbon neutral, the bridge has a unique functionality which one cannot really expect from a non-vehicular bridge.  The bridge is segregated where one lane is explicitly made for cyclist, the other for pedestrians only. This was designed for safety purposes so that the cyclists can cross the bridge with no delays while avoiding accidents involving pedestrians at the same time. It is unimaginable seeing such a bridge serve that purpose in the US and other places where a bridge is used for everyone including pedestrians and cyclists, but given the increased usage of bicycles and the expansion of bike trails especially in cities with more than 20,000 inhabitants, a plan for a bridge like this one may be in the cards 10 years down the road.

If one counts Sydhavn as part of Copenhagen’s Inner Harbor, then this bridge was the first one built in 52 years (the Langenbro was the last bridge built in 1954), but given the increase in the number of bikes in Copenhagen, this bridge will soon have company as other bridges are in the drafting phase waiting to be erected over the next 5-10 years.

Right bridge for bikes and pedestrians and Left bridge for cars.

 Dybbølsbro Bridges

Location: Spanning the rail lines in Vesterport, linking the Fisketorvet Shopping Center and Kødbyen

Description:  Consists of two viaducts- both built of concrete and steel. One is used exclusively for automobiles and buses, the other for pedestrians and cyclists Both are 240 meters long.

Bridgehunter’s Remarks: Located not far from the Bryggebroen Bike Bridge at the north entrance to Copenhagen’s largest shopping center, this viaduct provides both the motorists as well as the cyclists with easy access to Copenhagen’s train station, which is about 5-10 minutes away pending on what form of transportation you use. Normally, one will find only one bridge whose outer lanes are reserved explicitly for cyclist and pedestrians. To a certain degree, one could imagine a historic bridge (be it arch or truss) being used exclusively for pedestrians while the modernized bridge serves vehicular traffic only. This modern but unique bridge is one of the rarest forms to be seen in Copenhagen not only because of its function but the fact that the viaduct is almost 1 km long and spans railways in a ravine that is approximately 20 meters deep. This duo viaduct is located at the north end of the  Fisketorvet Shopping Center, the largest mall in the Danish capital.

Teglværk Bridge

Location:  Over section of Sydhavn in Frederiksborg

Built: 2011

Dimensions: 97 meters long and 12 meters wide

Description: This bridge is best compared to a glass which is filled with a third of each liquid, starting with  the heaviest and ending with the lightest- like honey, jello and a fruit drink for example- and not being able to mix them together.  From a bird’s eye view, it looks like a cable-stayed bridge whose thick cables are supported by only one steel tower.  Seeing it up close and judging it by its side and oblique views, looks like a kingpost truss bridge with riveted connections. If that was the case, then it would be the rarest bridge in the world for the bridge type has long since been out of use, and in addition to that, most kingpost truss bridges built in the US and other places in the world consisted of pinned connections. There are only a few examples of those built using riveted connections today, like the Schoenemann Park Bridge in Luverne, Minnesota and the Waddell Kingpost through truss bridge located at English Landing Park in Parkville near Kansas City. Looking at it more closely and one will find by the appearance of hydraulics on the diagonal components, that this bridge is a drawbridge, spanning a section of Copenhagen’s west harbor and accommodating traffic in the newly developed region located just to the north and west of Ørestad.

This is a brand new bridge, as it was built earlier this year  and has not appeared on any of the Google or Bing Maps as of present.  But not to worry, it will appear the next time a bird’s eye view of Copenhagen is redone.  Link: http://www.e-architect.co.uk/copenhagen/teglvaerksbroen.htm

 

 Ørestad Footbridge

Location: Over Sydhavn west of Ørestad

Built: ca. 2008

Dimensions: Unknown

Description:  To the taste of many bridge fans, this structure does not deserve to be recognized, as it is very original and bland in color. However, one must not judge a book by its cover when it comes to this steel beam bridge. Resembling a footbridge, this structure was built using the least amount of steel possible, making a person wonder how the bridge can survive extreme weather conditions, as well as numerous residents of Ørestad using it to get to the harbor from their houses. The bridge is also difficult to access as it is blocked off on the east side and access from the western edge is difficult, forcing the person to believe that the bridge is privately owned, which it probably is. By the same token however, one can get a good side view from its neighboring bridge, the Spaellandsbroen Bridge, which runs parallel to the railway and carries traffic to Kastrup.

Dyssebroen Bridge

Location: Stadsgraven between Christianshavn and Amager in Freetown Christiania

Built: 1998

Dimensions: 30 meters long and 2 meters wide

Description:  This bridge is an example of a wooden deck truss bridge, whose design comprises of a Kingpost design and whose material used for its construction was Douglas timber. The pedestrian and bicycle bridge is a replacement of an earlier wooden beam bridge built at the beginning of the 20th Century and was used for military traffic. Plans of restoring the bridge in the 1990s was scrapped when it was revealed through the dismantling process that rot was worse than anticipated. Ax and Kelle, a team of journeymen from Germany, spent a total of 2,500 hours over the course of three months building the new structure, using the piers from the old one, and making it accessible for cyclists and pedestrians.  While the columnist could not visit the bridge, a link with a picture of the 1998 structure is found below: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dyssebroen

HONORABLY MENTIONED:

  1. Amagerbro Pedestrian Bridge–  Located over a major highway in the suburb of Amagerbro, this bridge is unique to the city of Copenhagen because of its two-sided steel arch design which tilts at a 135° angle outwards, similar to a butterfly’s wing. Completed in 2008, this pedestrian bridge has won many awards on a regional level because of its unique design, even though one will see many of these bridge types painting the European landscape. Link: https://bridgehunterschronicles.files.wordpress.com/2015/10/37001-9.jpg
  2. The Bridges of Frederiksholm– Known as the Danish version of Little Venice, these are a network of steel and wooden bridges connecting the apartments that exist- all over a body of water belonging to Sydhavn. While they may look bland to bridge enthusiasts, the bridges serve both pedestrians and vehicular traffic that drive in and out of one of the newest residential districts in Copenhagen- in existence since 2005. 
  3. Nørreport Park Pedestrian Bridge– located at the center of the largest park in Copenhagen’s city center (located next to the train/metro station bearing the same name as the park itself), this bridge has a Town Lattice design built on steel towers and spans the center part of the lake. It is rare to see truss bridges in Denmark but even more so in Copenhagen itself as the city has at the most about 3-4 bridges of this kind overall, with the landscape consisting of beam, arch and bascule bridges. For those loving truss bridges, this 1800 structure is a beauty that is a must see while in Copenhagen. The pedestrian/ bike trail bridge is well-maintained and serves as one of the main attractions of the park.
  4. The bridges in planning– In the next 10 years, as many as five new bridges will paint the cityscape of Copenhagen with the purpose of accommodating additional cyclists and pedestrians alike. As more people abandon the car for the bike, city planners have felt the need to make the city friendlier to these groups, while at the same time, focus on two bigger goals: make the city carbon neutral and make the city look really nice. Some of the bridges in planning include the following enclosed via links: http://www.orangesmile.com/ru/foto/top-bridges/harbor-concept-bridge-copenhagen.jpghttp://www.google.de/imgres?imgurl=http://www.inhabitat.com/wp-content/uploads/stevenhollcopenhagenbridge.jpg&imgrefurl=http://inhabitat.com/copenhagen-gateway-by-steven-holl/&usg=__FlbCQdRodbANQeC_0vH15FiGbOA=&h=336&w=537&sz=47&hl=de&start=0&zoom=1&tbnid=-xcTApw68e2EwM:&tbnh=139&tbnw=203&ei=1OmnTt1HpvnhBJ2R4CA&prev=/search%3Fq%3DBridges%2BCopenhagen%26um%3D1%26hl%3Dde%26sa%3DN%26biw%3D1152%26bih%3D773%26tbm%3Disch&um=1&itbs=1&iact=hc&vpx=258&vpy=160&dur=34&hovh=177&hovw=284&tx=195&ty=94&sig=111029160268588210672&page=1&ndsp=20&ved=1t:429,r:1,s:0

http://www.google.de/imgres?imgurl=http://www.metropolismag.com/pov/wp-content/uploads/2009/10/Butterflybridge-open-day_zoom-1024×441.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.metropolismag.com/pov/20091023/building-bridges&usg=__N3_8lldTBewKLAfOLDSXGDhPaGg=&h=441&w=1024&sz=123&hl=de&start=40&zoom=1&tbnid=C5hr4zTuL4p6HM:&tbnh=68&tbnw=159&ei=1OmnTt1HpvnhBJ2R4CA&prev=/search%3Fq%3DBridges%2BCopenhagen%26um%3D1%26hl%3Dde%26sa%3DN%26biw%3D1152%26bih%3D773%26tbm%3Disch&um=1&itbs=1&iact=rc&dur=338&sig=111029160268588210672&page=3&ndsp=24&ved=1t:429,r:14,s:40&tx=85&ty=24

Of the above-mentioned bridges presented here that people should see while in Copenhagen, there is one structure that stands out alone and has become the new symbol of the city and region. Construction lasted 9 years and despite the high costs, the bridge brought the city (and the country) and its next door neighbor together. In the next article on the Bridges of Copenhagen, we will look at the Øresund-Bridge.