Devil’s Bridge Tarragona

Devil’s Bridge Tarragona

Chez Lorraine

Located 4 km up north Tarragona, Devil’s Bridge (Pont del Diable in Spanish or Aqüeducte de les Ferreres in Catalan) is part of the UNESCO Archaeological Ensemble of Tárraco.

Dated probably from the reign of Augustus (27 BC–14 AD), the bridge was part of a Roman aqueduct. It transported fresh water from the Francoli river to Tarragona.

Puente del Diablo 1

Fun facts:

  • The aqueduct consists of 2 levels of arches, 25 on top and 11 at the bottom.
  • All arches measure 20 Roman feet (7,95 m).
  • Pont del Diable is max 27 m high and 249 m long. Originally it was 25 km long because it used as water supply from Francoli river which is situated 14 km from Tarragona.
  • It was in use, transporting water to Tarragona until the 18th century.
  • Pont del Diablo is one of well-preserved aqueducts in Spain after that one in Segovia.
  • This aqueduct is visible from…

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BHC Pic of the Week Nr. 10

Our next pic of the week is also a throwback dating back to almost a decade ago. This pic was taken at sundown at the Arial Lift Bridge in Duluth, Minnesota in September 2009. It was during that time we celebrated our last day in the States with a couple friends from the Mille Lacs region and we decided to take a day trip up north to see the city, its beautiful landscape and pieces of history that are typical of the city. The Arial Lift Bridge was one of those landmarks. Built as a transporter bridge in 1905, it was converted to a vertical lift bridge in 1930 and hs functioned in its original form ever since. For more details, click here. Nevertheless, the bridge still serves as a gateway to the Great Lakes Region , where ships start their journey through the five largest lakes in the United States before continuing along the St. Lawrence River and into the Atlantic Ocean.

And with that marks the start of the weekend. 🙂  Enjoy the pics and the information on the bridge. If you want to know more about the rest of Duluth’s bridges, click on this link.




Historic Structures and Glasses: Restore vs. Replacement in Simpler Terms

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Co-written with sister column, FF new logo

The discussion about the preservation and reuse of historic places has existed since the 1950s, thanks to the preservation laws that have been in place. The German Preservation Laws were passed in 1958, whereas the Historic Preservation Laws that established the National Park Service and National Register of Historic Places in the USA were enacted in 1966. Both serve the lone purpose of identifying and designating places unique to the cultural identity and history of their respective countries. Furthermore, these places are protected from any sort of modernization that would otherwise alter or destroy the structure in its original form. Protected places often receive tax credits, grants and other amenities that are normally and often not granted if it is not protected or even nominated for listing as a historic site.  This applies to not only buildings and bridges but also to roadways and highways, windmills, towers of any sorts, forts and castles, citadels and educational institutions and even memorials commemorating important events.

Dedicating and designating sites often receive mixed reactions, from overwhelming joy because they can better enjoy the sites and educate the younger generations, to disgruntlement because they want to relieve themselves of a potential liability.


Since working with a preservation group in western Saxony on saving the Bockau Arch Bridge, a seven-span stone arch bridge that spans the Zwickau Mulde between Bockau and Zschorlau, six kilometers southwest of Aue, the theme involving this structure has been ownership. The bridge has been closed to all traffic since August 2017 while a replacement is being built on a new alignment. Once the new bridge opens, the 150-year old structure will come down unless someone is willing to step in and take over ownership and the responsibilities involved. . Taking the structure means paying for its maintenance and assuming all responsibility for anything that could potentially happen. And this is the key here: Ownership.

Who wants to own a piece of history? To examine this, let’s look at a basic example of a commodity where two thirds of the world’s population wear on a regular basis- the author included as well: glasses.

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The author’s sunglasses: the older model from 2005 on top; the newest pair from 2018 at the bottom.

Ever since Marco Polo’s invention, glasses have been improved, innovated and modernized to not only make the person look great in appearance. It also helps them to better see the environment surrounding them, regardless of whether they are near-sighted or far sighted, have astigmatism or require bi-focals to read, or if they want protect their eyes from the sun in the form of shades. Glasses can be plastic or metal (or even both). And like the historic structures, the materials can be recycled if no one wants them. Yet by the same token, many of us love to keep them for the purpose of memories or give them away to those who need them. For over 30 years, I have worn nine pairs of glasses and two pairs of sunglasses; this does not count the eight years that I primarily wore contact lenses, which was during my time in high school and college. Like our historic structures, glasses have a life span. They are worn until the frames develop rust and corrosion, the vision changes or they are broken.

In some cases, many look for a new frames because they want to “look cool” in front of their peers. The “look cool” mentality has overtaken society to a point where it can be applicable to about everything: cars, clothing, houses and especially historic places and structures of interest. Basically, people just ignore the significance of these structures and things that had been built in the past, which hold memories, contribute to the development of a country, region or even community, or are simply fashionable. Still in spite of all this, one has to do something about the glasses, just as much one has to do something about the historic building.

So let’s take these two pairs of sunglasses, for example. Like in the picture above, the top one I was prescribed by an optometrist in 2005; the bottom one most recently in June 2018. The top one is a combination of plastic and steel- the temples, ends and hinges are made of steel; the eye wires are plastic. The lenses are made with Carl Zeiss branded glass with a sealcoat covering to protect it from scratches.  The bottom ones are plastic- frames, temples and nosepiece; the lenses are plastic but with a sealcoat protectant and dimmers to protect the eyes from the sun. The brand name is generic- no name.  The difference is that the changes in the eyes required new sunglasses for the purpose of driving or doing work outside.  As I wear the new sunglasses, which are not as high quality but is “cool,” according to standards, the question is what to do with the old sunglasses?

There are enough options to go around, even if the sunglasses are not considered significant. One can keep the old pair for memory purposes. Good if you have enough space for them. One can give them away to someone who needs them. If they are non-prescription lenses, that is much easier than those with a prescription. With the prescription lenses, one will need to remove them from the frame before giving them away. Then there is the option of handing them into the glasses provider, who takes the pair apart and allows for the materials to be recycled.  More likely one will return the old pair to the provider to be recycled and reused than it would be to give them away because of the factors of age, quality of the materials and glass parts and especially the questions with the lenses themselves. One can keep the pair, but it would be the same as leaving them out of sight and out of mind.

And this mentality can be implemented to any historic structure. People strive for cooler, more modern buildings, infrastructure or the like, but do not pay attention to the significance of the structure they are replacing in terms of learning about the past and figuring its reuse in the future. While some of  these “oldtimers “ are eventually vacated and abandoned, most of them are eventually torn down with the materials being reused for other purposes; parts of sentimental values, such as finials, statues and plaques, are donated to museums and other associations to be put on display.

The Bridge at Pointer’s Ridge. Built in 1910 by the Western Bridge Company of Omaha, NE. The Big Sioux River crossing was one of five bridges removed after years of abandonment in 2012. Photo taken in 1999 when it was still open.

One of examples that comes to mind when looking at this mentality are the bridges of Minnehaha County in South Dakota. The most populous county in the state whose county seat is Sioux Falls (also the largest city in the state), the county used to have dozens of historic truss bridges that served rail and automobile traffic. As of present, 30 known truss bridges exists in the county, down from 43 in 1990, and half as many as in 1980.  At least six of them are abandoned awaiting reuse. This includes a rails-to-road bridge that was replaced in 1997 but has been sitting alongside a gravel road just outside Dell Rapids ever since.  A big highlight came with the fall of five truss bridges between Dell Rapids and Crooks in 2012, which included three through truss spans- two of which had crossed the Big Sioux. All three were eligible for the National Register. The reasons behind the removal were simple: Abandoned for too long and liability was too much to handle

This leads me to my last point on the glasses principle: what if the structures are protected by law, listed as a historic monument?  Let’s look at the glasses principle again to answer that question. Imagine you have a couple sets of glasses you don’t want to part ways with, even as you clean your room or  flat. What do you do with them? In the case of my old sunglasses, the answer is simple- I keep them for one can reuse them for other purposes. Even if I allow my own daughter to use them for decorating dolls or giant teddy bears, or even for artwork, the old pair is mine, if and only if I want to keep them and allow for use by someone else under my care.  The only way I would not keep the old sunglasses is if I really want to get rid of them and no one wants them.

Big Sioux River Crossing at 255th Street: One of five bridges removed in 2012 after decades of abandonment. Photo taken in 1999.

For historic places, this is where we have somewhat of a grey area. If you treat the historic place as if it is protected and provide great care for it, then there is a guarantee that it will remain in its original, pristine condition. The problem is if you want to get rid of it and your place is protected by law. Here you must find the right person who will take as good care of it as you do with your glasses. And that is not easy because the owner must have the financial security and the willpower just to do that. Then the person taking it over does not automatically do what he/she pleases. If protected under preservation laws you must treat it as if it is yours but it is actually not, just like renting a house.  Half the places that have been torn down despite its designation as a historical site was because of the lack of ownership and their willingness to do something to their liking. Even if there are options for restoration available, if no one wants it, it has to go, even if it means taking it off the historic registry list to do that.  Sometimes properties are reclaimed at the very last second, just like the old glasses, because of the need to save it. While one can easily do that with glasses, it is difficult to do that with historic places, for replacement contracts often include removal clauses for the old structure, something that is very difficult to rescind without taking the matter to court.


In reference to the project on the Bockau Arch Bridge in Germany, we are actually at that point. Despite its protection as a historic structure, its designation was taken off recently, thus allowing for the contract for the new bridge at the expense of the old structure to proceed. Yet, like with the pair of old glasses, last ditch attempts are being made to stop the process for there are possible suitors willing to take over the old structure and repurpose it for bike and pedestrian use. While neither of the communities have expressed interest, despite convincing arguments that the bridge can be maintained at a price that is 100 times less than the calculated amount, the group working to save the bridge is forming an association which will feature a network of patrons in the region, willing to chip in to own the bridge privately. Despite this, the debate on ownership and the bridge’s future lies in the hands of the state parliament because the bridge carries a federal highway, which is maintained on the state and national levels. Will it become like the old pair of glasses that is saved the last second will be decided upon later this fall.

To summarize briefly on the glasses principle, glasses and buildings each have a short lifespan because of their functionality and appearance. We tend to favor the latter more than the former and therefore, replace them with newer, more modern and stylish things to keep up with the pace. However, the older structures, just like the discarded pair of glasses, are downgraded on the scale, despite its protection under laws and ownership. When listed as a historical site, the proprietor works for and together with the government to ensure its upkeep, just like lending old glasses to someone for use, as long as the person knows he/she is “borrowing” it. When it is not listed , they are either abandoned or torn down, just like storing the glasses in the drawers or even having them recycled. However the decision is final if and only if no one wants it, and this could be a last-second thing.

The Bridge at Iverson Crossing south of Sioux Falls. Built in 1897, added to the National Register in 1996. Now privately owned. Photo taken in 1998.

We cannot plan ahead for things that need to be built, expanded or even replaced, for there may be someone with a strong backbone and staunch support who will step in the last minute to stake their claim. This applies to replacing older, historic structures with modern ones that have less taste and value. In the face of environmental issues we’re seeing globally on a daily basis, we have to use and reuse buildings and other structures to prevent the waste of materials that are becoming rarer to use, the destruction of natural habitats that may never recover but most importantly, remind the younger generations of our history and how we got this far. While some of us have little memories of our old glasses in schools with the exception of school class and party photos, almost all of us have memories of our experiences at, in, or on a historic structure that deserves to be recognized and kept for others to see. It’s just a matter of handling them, like the glasses we are wearing.




Mystery Bridge Nr. 99: A Submerged Historic Bridge in The Springs

Tunnel View of the Bartlett Springs Bridge. All photos courtesy of Craig Philpott, used with permission

The State of California has been suffering from record-breaking droughts and forest fires since 2010, displacing several hundred thousand residents, forcing businesses to close in response to financial crunches and driving prices of the state’s commodities- namely produce and wine- sky high, even overseas. In fact, the 2018 forest fires, caused by a lethal combination of heat, extreme dry weather and high winds, has the potential of surpassing 2017 as the worst season for forest fires- on record!

And to give you an idea how bad 2017 was, …

In spite of this, the drought and forest fires do present some silver linings, even though they are considered relatively small in comparison to the big events that are affecting everybody. The first is the discovery of ancient artefacts that had been submerged in water thanks to the damming of creeks and rivers combined with the creation of lakes and reservoirs.

Take for instance this latest discovery by fellow bridgehunter and Californian resident Craig Philpott.

The Bartlett Springs Bridge is an example of a historic bridge that used to span a small creek before it became a lake. Spanning North Fork Cache Creek, this six-panel Pratt through truss bridge is located in the Springs region in Lake County in northern California. Specifically, as seen in the Google Map, the bridge is between Hough Springs and Indian Valley Reservoir, 25 miles southeast of the nearest city of Bartlett Springs. It can be seen from State Highway 303 and there used to be a road opposite of the creek that led to the structure. The bridge used to span a creek until it was dammed, and the Indian Valley Reservoir was created in 1975. The reservoir is 11 km long and 4 km wide, yet the water flowing from there had inundated the truss span, which is 95 feet long, 18 feet wide. Thanks to the drought, the truss bridge remains in tact and one can make some discoveries about it. For instance, the bridge is a pin-connected through truss structure with Howe lattice portal and strut bracings. Heel bracings with subdivisions are found on the portal bracings. With Town Lattice portal bracings being phased out at the time of its construction, the date of construction is narrowed down to between 1895 and 1915, the time of the introduction of standardized truss bridges with heavier steel and riveted connections. Many bridge builders used the Howe lattice portals, which makes it difficult to determine who built this one with the exception of companies based locally.  Vertical beams are V-laced, and railings are Town Lattice. Decking was wooden until it was abandoned in favor of a taller bridge made of steel and concrete. Now the decking is rotted and dilapidated.

The bridge appears to be in great shape based on personal observations, and there are calls for relocating the bridge onto higher ground to be restored and reused again. Sadly because of financial constraints, it may be possible to store it until there is enough funding to undertake this work. For sure though, the bridge has the potential of being elgible for the National Register of Historic Places, which opens the doors to grants and other funding possibilities for restoration and relocation.

The problem is, despite being the last bridge of its kind left in Lake County, the information is scarce apart from what is given. Can you help solve the case? If you know more about the bridge, leave a comment or contact Jason Smith at the Chronicles. The information will then be added. The more information, the more likely the bridge could be up for listing. But only you can help. Can you?

A special thanks to Craig Philpott for allowing use of the photos. These are a few examples. You can see more by clicking here.


Lens Lens (Royal Albert Bridge, Plymouth-Saltash, Devon/Cornwall, UK)

Lens Lens (Royal Albert Bridge, Plymouth-Saltash, Devon/Cornwall, UK)

The Beauty of Transport

There are two basic ways of telling that the Royal Albert Bridge between Plymouth and Saltash is the work of engineer/architect/visionary Isambard Kingdom Brunel. The first is that it looks like nothing else on the British railway network. Brunel – Benjamin ‘Dizzy’ Disraeli to Robert Stephenson’s William Gladstone – was a true one-off. He wouldn’t have recognised a conventional design solution if it had come up to him, ground his famous cigar underfoot and then jumped up and down on his top hat. Brunel seems to have been engaged in a lifelong search for the biggest, the widest, the flattest, the broadest, the most spectacular, the most unusual.

The second way you can tell is this:

The Royal Albert Bridge, in 2014. Photo by Geof Sheppard (Own work) [CC BY-SA 4.0], via Wikimedia Commons

…which does rather give the game away, though the inscription wasn’t there when the…

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The most incredible drawbridges of Europe

The most incredible drawbridges of Europe

Historias de Arquitectura

Enjoy of the creativity and the imagination of the human with the most spectacular drawbridges on the old continent.

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Hi, in the effort to find an island to build my future (and unique) building, I called my best friend from North America (how are Ray?), and, between the two, we toured by the territory between Canada and United States, where lies the area known as the thousand Islands (to be exact are 1864). There we discovered two Islands joined by the smaller international bridge in the world, it’s two small surfaces that, in theory, separate (nothing more and nothing less than) Canada and United States.

I say in theory because I, Rodolfo, illustrious legacy of a breed of adventurers, polyglot and famous philanthropists, I told them of a smaller international bridge which unite Spain and Portugal in the municipality of La Codosera, it has three meters and twenty centimeters…

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The Tower Bridge: Celebrating Innovation

The Tower Bridge: Celebrating Innovation

If you ever visit London, you should follow the first rule as a tourist and/or bridge enthusiast: Visit the bridges first. London has hundreds of unique crossings serving the population of 8,000,000 (counting the metropolitan area, it’s about 12,000,000). The most popular bridges in London are the crossings along the River Thames, with the bridges at Chelsea, Waterloo, Hungerford, Vauxhall, Blackfriars, the new Millenium, the new London, and especially this bridge: Tower Bridge. Located next to the Tower of London, this 1894 gem is one of the 14 wonders of London that a person must see. It is the most ornamental of London’s bridges and has received dozens of accolades for its rather extraordinary design. The bridge’s history is even more interesting, as you can see in this article that was written and posted by a fellow Brit on the anniversary of the bridge’s grand opening. Read this and then have a look at Tower Bridge. Speaking from the experience of this pontist’s visit in 1999, you will not regret visiting and crossing this unique piece of London history. Enjoy! 🙂